00358 - Histology

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student will have acquired basic informations required to understand the morpho-functional bases of the organization of the different organs of the human body. The course will be focused on the stomatognathic apparatus. More specifically, the student will acquire the knowledge necessary to perform microscopic observations and on the general organization of eukaryotic cells. It will illustrate how the cell structures are modified in the process of differentiation to generate cells specific for each tissue and how these modifications guide the physiological functions of the tissues. It will also illustrate the elements of the human embryogenesis and the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the stomatognathic apparatus. It will illustrate the organization of the various classes of tissues, and provide information that will allow the student to recognize the organization and functional characteristics of the mucous membranes and salivary glands of the oral cavity, the organization and physiology of the tissues of the tooth, and have the basis for the interpretation of the most important physio-pathological processes concerning the stomatognathic apparatus.

Course contents


To understand the topics discussed during this course the notions on cytoplasmic organics and the nucleus of the applied Biology course are necessary.


Derivation of tissues from embryonic leaflets and organogenetic mechanisms - Characteristics of epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues - Epithelial coating materials (adhesion molecules, junction complexes, adhesion molecule relationships and cytoskeletal elements, keratinization mechanisms, cell types which cooperate with keratinocytes) - Glandular epithelial tissues (organogenetic formation mechanisms) - Exocrine glands (parenchyma and stroma) - Excretory adenomas and ducts (secretion mechanisms) - Endocrine glands (generality) - Connective tissues: extracellular matrix, proteoglycans and glycoproteins ; (Fibroblasts, pericytes, endothelial cells, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells, adipocytes) - Cartilage (hyaline, fibrous, elastic cartilage) - Fibrillar component: collagen fibers and elastic fibers - Composition and composition of the basal membrane - Intrinsic and extrinsic cellular component of connectors - Arthritic cartilage - Cartilage calcification - Mechanisms of condrogenisation and role of cartilage patterns of bone skeletal segments - Bone tissue (flat, short, long bones) - Osteogenesis (primitive and secondary) - Role of different cellular elements (osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts ) In bone remodeling - Ossification processes (direct and indirect) - Mineralization (molecular and cellular mechanisms) - Contractile tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac, smooth) - Peculiar features of the cytoskeletal components present in different types of muscle cells - Role of sarcolemma and Sarcoplasmic reticulum - Molecular composition and structural organization of myophilus - Contraction mechanisms - Excitable tissues (structural organization of neuronal and glial cells in central and peripheral nervous tissue) - Mechanisms of neuroscience (axonal flow and synapse) - Mechanisms of onset and transmission of the nervous impulse - Role of myelinosis in the transmission of the nervous impulse.


Oral mucosa - Lingual papillae- Major and minor salivary glands (morphological organization and functional characteristics) - Saliva (main components and secretion regulation mechanisms) - Odontogenesis - Pulp-dentin organ (morphological organization and dental sensitivity mechanisms ) - Dentinogenesis - Dentin (mantle, primary, secondary, tertiary) - Role of odontoblasts in dentin secretion and mineralization - Amelogenesis - Enamel (aprismatic, prismatic, interprismatic) - Role of ameloblasts in enamel matrix secretion and maturation of the enamel - Dental tissue mineralization processes - Root formation - Periodontal: cement, ligating, gingiva, alveolar bone - Dental eruption - Deciduous decayed teeth


Functional citology and histology - Edi Ermes MI 2005

Oral embriology and histology - Miör Fejerskov Edi Ermes MI

Oral cavity biology - Ferguson Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

In addition:

  1. Human Histology: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 3e - Stevens & Lowe's Human Histology, 4th Edition
  2. Human Histology: In Its Relations To Descriptive Anatomy, Physiology And Pathology - E. R. Peaslee
  3. Textbook of Human Histology: With Colour Atlas & Practical Guide - Inderbir Singh
  4. Krause's Essential Human Histology for Medical Students - Krause J. William
  5. Compendium Of Human Histology - Charles Morel
  6. The ABCs of Human Histology: A pocket guide illustrated - Javier Muñoz Moreno
  7. Histology: A Text and Atlas: With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology - Michael H., Ph.D. Ross and M.D. Pawlina Wojciech

The students will be strongly encouraged to take an independent approach to learning. They will be advaiced to adopt any international textbook in English available on-line. They will also be guided toward a critical use of internet-assisted documentation and histological archives of italian universities.

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons. The acquisition of the knowledge may be monitored with oral and written tests

Assessment methods

The students will be evalutated by oral exams on the basis of at least three questions on the subject of the course. The subject of two questions will be randomly chosen by the professors. One question will be chosen by the student.

At the end of the examination, the professor will score the performance of the student using a number ranging from 18 to 30 according to the interpretation indicated below.

Interpretation of the score:

  • <18 failure, not scored. The student fails to satisfactory address all of the questions.
  • 18 Poor. The student inadequately addresses most of the questions with serious inherent weaknesses.
  • 21 Fair. The student broadly addresses most of the questions, but there are significant weaknesses.
  • 24 Good. The student addresses the questions well, but a number of shortcomings are present.
  • 27 Very good. The student addresses the criterion very well, but a small number of shortcomings are present.
  • 30 Excellent. The student successfully addresses all relevant aspects of the questions. Any shortcomings are minor.
  • 30 cum laude. The student successfully addresses all relevant aspects of the questions with no shortcomings.

Teaching tools

Selected meritorious slides presentations on specific subjects prepared by students of previous academic years are posted on line

Office hours

See the website of Anna Rita Franco Migliaccio

See the website of Furio Pezzetti