90316 - General Pathology Lab-based Course (B)

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2017/2018

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the students will know the general aspects of histopathology. They will be able to recognize and discuss the microscopic alterations caused by disease in cells and tissues, as well as the reactions to the etiologic agents. In particular, the student will be able to correlate the microscopic alterations with the disease mechanisms. Moreover, the course will enable the student to realize the limits and the diagnosis potential of general histopathology.

Course contents

1. Epithelial benign tumors and mesenchymal tumors: intestinal polyp, breast fibroadenoma, chondrosarcoma, fusocellular sarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma.

2. Malignant epithelial tumors: bronchial adenocarcinoma, intestinal adenocarcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell epithelioma.

3. Metastasis: adenocarcinoma liver metastases, cancer lung metastases, cancer lymph node metastases, lymph node metastases of squamous cell epithelioma.

4. Reversible cell injury and fatty change, amyloidosis: cellular swelling (vacuolar degeneration) of the liver, hepatic steatosis, hepatic steatosis (Sudan III), liver amyloidosis, spleen amyloidosis, renal amyloidosis, adrenal amyloidosis.

5. Necrosis and infarction: zonal necrosis (liver), toxic tubular necrosis (kidney), myocardial necrosis, renal infarction, pulmonary infarction.

6. Acute inflammation: purulent appendicitis, lobar pneumonia, fibrinous pleurisy, necrotic-hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia.

7. Acute and chronic purulent inflammation: purulent bronchitis, purulent bronchopneumonia, acute renal abscesses, chronic renal abscess, actinomycosis of the myocardium.

8. Chronic inflammation: foreign body granuloma, post-primary pulmonary tuberculosis, miliary tuberculosis, early-stage lymph node tuberculosis, advanced-stage lymph node tuberculosis, renal tuberculosis.

9. Connective tissue neoformation: young granulation tissue, stages of granulation tissue formation, granulation tissue in pulmonary infarction, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis, myocardial sclerosis.

10. Arteriosclerosis: medial calcific arteriosclerosis (Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis) and atheromatous plaque, atheromatous plaque with intramural hemorrhage, atheromatous plaques with thick fibrous cups, atheromatous plaque with thin cap and necrotic core (co-occurrence of syphilis signs), atheromatous ulcerated plaque with parietal white thrombus, atherosclerosis aneurysm with thrombus.

11. Thrombosis: venous thrombus, organization of a venous thrombus, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary infarction, thrombotic aneurysm, parietal white thrombus from ulcerated atheromatous plaque.


BATTELLI M.G., Atlante di istopatologia, CLUEB.

Teaching methods

This teaching is organized into eleven lectures, to explain the topics, and eleven practical lessons in the laboratory of histopathology, as shown below.

- Each hystopatology practical will be preceded by a preliminary lecture. Lectures aim at introducing and explaining the individual topics, together with the "pictures" of the four-six related hystological preparations that will be examined by the students under the microscope.

- For practical lessons, students will be assigned to four groups to ensure the individual access to microscopes. A teacher will be present continuously during the laboratory training to guide the microscopic analysis, answer questions, and solve problems.

- Tissue slides can be seen also “on-line” through the virtual microscopy service. The system allows to “explore” the tissue sections from the personal computer. Using this system is particularly fruitful for the students' individual training.

Assessment methods

The learning assessment of General Pathology Laboratory will include the examination by the student of a histopathological preparation at light microscopy. The student will describe and discuss the morphological characteristics and their changes to recognize the specific histopathological pattern.

The learning assessment of General Pathology Laboratory will be carried on together with the oral test of General Pathology and Pathophysiology.

Teaching tools

The histopathology lab is equipped with 56 microscopes.

The slides of the presentations, together with a specific Guide prepared by the teacher, will be fully available for the students at Alm@-DL [http://almadl.cib.unibo.it/] AMS Campus: http://campus.cib.unibo.it/cgi/lista, search by teacher.

Tissue slides can be seen also through the virtual microscopy service http://virtualmicroscopy.patologia-sperimentale.unibo.it/. The system allows to “explore” the hystological sections representative of the different diseases.

Office hours

See the website of Carla Renata Arciola