Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Docente: Sara Capacci
  • Credits: 5
  • SSD: SECS-S/03
  • Language: English
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Health Economics and Management (cod. 5902)

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student is provided with the essential concepts of statistics and probability, with the dual objective of illustrating the basic tools for the exploratory analysis of health-related data and introducing the founding elements of econometrics.

Course contents

  • Descriptive statistics: measures of central tendency, measures of dispersions and graphical displays
  • Random variables and probability distributions, the Normal Distribution, the Standard Normal Distribution, the Student’s T distribution
  • Populations and samples, point estimation and confidence intervals for the population mean for the case of known and unknown variance
  • Hypothesis testing for the mean and for the difference between two means


  • Rosner, B. (2016) “Fundamentals of Biostatistics”, Cengage.
  • Agresti, A. (2018) "Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences", 5th edition. Pearson
  • Plichta Kellar, S.B. and Kelvin, E.A. (2013) "Munro's statistical methods for health care research”. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Teaching methods

During the course theoretical and practical sessions will be held. During practical sessions empirical knowledge of the proposed methods will be reached through real-world case studies and exercises performed using Microsoft Excel.

The UNIBO e-learning platform (VIRTUALE) will be used to share teaching materials and to assign periodical home assignments to students.

Assessment methods

The course has a required cumulative final examination. You must take, and pass, the final examination to receive a passing grade in the course. The final exam will be a written test (computer based). Students are required to enrol using Almaesami.

The test consists in three sections:

1) multiple choice/short-answers section (35% of Exam Score, 6 questions);

2) free response section requiring interpretatin of statistical outputs (20% of Exam Score, 2 questions);

3) practical section with Excel (45% of Exam Score, 5 questions). The test duration is 75 minutes.

(Please notice that the test structure might change; any modifications will be communicated in class).


The grading system is on a 0-30 range, the following grid applies:

  • <18 failed
  • 18-23 sufficient
  • 24-27 good
  • 28-30 very good
  • 30 cum laude honors

Teaching tools

The following tools will be available on the UNIBO e-learning platform (VIRTUALE)

  • Slides/lecture notes: summarising theoretical concepts shown in class
  • Exercises and Solutions which will be regularly proposed to students
  • Miscellanea: exercises, focus notes, sample tests will be uploaded when needed

Office hours

See the website of Sara Capacci