85109 - General and Clinical Pathology

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Moduli: Dario De Biase (Modulo 1) Davide Trerè (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Pharmacy (cod. 9219)

    Also valid for Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Pharmacy (cod. 5985)

Learning outcomes

The students will learn the etiology and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, the basic reactions to abnormal stimuli, the morphological changes they induce in cells and tissues, together with the systemic and functional consequences for the organism. The Students will acquire the appropriate knowledge of the disease's denomination and of medical terminology.

Course contents

Introduction to Pathology. The concept of health and disease, of aging, of etiology. Basis of medical terminology.

Cellular pathology. Cellular adaptations, reversible cell injury, apoptosis and necrosis. Inflammatory-reparative response. Etiology and classification of acute inflammation, chemical mediators, vascular changes and exudate formation, cellular events and phagocytosis. Chronic and granulomatous inflammation, tissue repair and wound healing, fibrosis. Systemic manifestations of inflammation: acute phase response and fever.

Immunopathology. Cells and tissues of the immune system. The complement system. Antigens and antibodies. Histocompatibility molecules. Hypersensitivity reactions. Transplant rejection. Immunologic tolerance. Mechanisms of autoimmune diseases.

Genetic diseases. Cytogenetic disorders involving autosomes and sex chromosomes. Transmission patterns of single-gene diseases: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked disorders. Disorders with multifactorial inheritance.

Tumors. Characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms. Tumour classification. The molecular basis of cancer. The multistep process of carcinogenesis. Metastasis. Molecular markers in solid tumors.

Physiopathology. Hemodynamic and vascular disorders. Thrombosis. Embolism. Stroke. Shock. Atherosclerosis. Thyroid diseases. Skin disorders. Gastrointestinal diseases.


  • Kumar V., Abbass A.K., Fausto N., Aster J.C. “Robbins - Fondamenti di Patologia e Fisiopatologia”, Edra Edizioni.

  • F. Celotti. "Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia" – EdiSES.

  • Maurizio Parola. "Patologia Generale ed Elementi di Fisiopatologia". EdiSES.

Teaching methods

Power Point support will be utilised during the lessons and a copy of it will be available for the Students.


As concerns the teaching methods of this course unit, all students (including all the international incoming exchange students, i.e. ERASMUS) must attend Module 1, 2 online [https://www.unibo.it/it/servizi-e-opportunita/salute-e-assistenza/salute-e-sicurezza/sicurezza-e-salute-nei-luoghi-di-studio-e-tirocinio], while Module 3 on health and safety is to be attended in class. Information about Module 3 attendance schedule is available on the website of your degree programme ("studiare"--"formazione obbligatoria su sicurezza e salute").

Assessment methods

The final examination aims to assess that the student has acquired the fundamental notions for a critical evaluation of the results of the main clinical laboratory tests which characterize the following pathological conditions: anemia, coagulation disorders; lipid disorders; hepatic disorders, renal disorders; diabetes; acid-base disorders. Learning of the following will also be assessed: general principles of interpretation of laboratory data; genetic tests (including neonatal screening tests), including their practical applications in the laboratory; precision medicine; liquid biopsy and its applications; ribosomopathies.

The final test is unique to the Integrated Course in General Pathology and Clinical Pathology and is divided into two parts. The first part consists of the performance of a test consisting of 20 multiple choice questions with 4 possible answers, of which only one is correct; each correct answer will be awarded 1 point, with no penalty in case of wrong or no answer. The second part consists of answering 3 open-ended questions, of which 2 refer to the General Pathology module and 1 to the Clinical Pathology module; each answer will be awarded 0 to 4 points based on the candidate's ability to expound the topics correctly, concisely and completely. The maximum time for taking the test will be 60 minutes.

The final grade will be derived from the sum of the points acquired in both parts.The examination is passed having acquired at least 18 points. Honors will be awarded to candidates who have achieved a total of 31 or 32 points. To take the test, students will need to register via AlmaEsami by the deadline set by the application and are required to know their Institutional credentials.

The test will be held using EOL platform

Teaching tools

Lectures will be supplied on informatic supports (https://virtuale.unibo.it/)

Office hours

See the website of Dario De Biase

See the website of Davide Trerè


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.