# 00914 - Statistics (O-Z)

• Moduli: Alessandro Lubisco (Modulo 1) Fabio Gobbi (Modulo 2)
• Campus: Bologna
• Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Political, Social and International Sciences (cod. 8853)
• from Feb 19, 2024 to May 23, 2024

• from Feb 21, 2024 to May 23, 2024

## Learning outcomes

The course gives to the participants a wide introduction to the basic tools which are necessary to implement a quantitative analysis of real phenomena, with a double aim: to develop the student skills of interpretation and critical evaluation of statistical information and to ensure the knowledge of the essential methods allowing the production and elaboration of well-organized statistical data.

After attending the course, students are expected:

- to be familiar with the basic elements of exploratory and inferential statistics;

- to be able to read and understand specialized papers containing the results of quantitative analyses,

- to have the capability of evaluating the synthetic elaboration of a set of census or sample data;

- to have acquired the expertise necessary to apply some of the specific tools of statistical methodology useful for a thorough description and/or study of economic and social phenomena.

## Course contents

Modulus One (February - March)

Elements of univariate exploratory statistics:

Classification of statistical units. Frequency distributions.

Graphical representation.

Main mean values: mode, median, average.

Measures of variability: deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation. Statistical ratios and index numbers.

Measures of inequality: concentration.

Elements of bivariate exploratory statistics:

Two-way frequency distribution (absolute and relative) and conditional distributions.

Linear dependence: covariance e correlation. Linear Regression.

Modulus Two (April-May)

Critical review of the main tools of exploratory statistics.

Some essential elements of probability.

The most used discrete random variables: Binomial, Geometric, Hypergeometric, Poisson.

The most used continuous random variables: Uniform, Exponential, Gaussian, Chi-Squared, Student t-distribution.

Statistical inference : population, sample, statistics and estimators, sample distributions.

Confidence interval for estimating frequencies and mean values.

Test for checking the specific value of a frequency and of a mean value.

Test for comparing two frequencies.

Test for comparing two mean values.

Test for checking independence between two variables.

Modulus 1

Slide ed esercizi risolti messi a disposizione dal docente

Simone Borra, Agostino Di Ciaccio
Statistica - Metodologia per le scienze economiche e sociali, IV edizione
Editrice: McGraw-Hill, Milano, 2021 ; ISBN 978-88-386-9632-9

Fulvia Mecatti
Statistica di base - Come, quando, perché - III edizione
Editrice: McGraw-Hill, Milano, 2022 ; ISBN 978-88-386-5660-6

Modulus 2

In definition

## Teaching methods

Front lessons with some exercise sessions

## Assessment methods

Written test concerning the topics developed in the course.

Partial test at the end of each modulus.

Oral examination (optional).

- Evaluation scale:

30 e lode (A+) =excellent

29 - 30 (A) = very good

27 - 28 (B+) = good

25 - 26 (B) = fairly good

23 - 24 (C) = more than sufficient

21 - 22 (D) = sufficient

18 - 20 (E) = barely sufficient

## Teaching tools

Teaching sheets and excercises will be available in the Web platform "virtuale.unibo.it"

## Office hours

See the website of Alessandro Lubisco

See the website of Fabio Gobbi