00351 - Pharmacology (LZ-C)

Academic Year 2023/2024

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 8415)

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student knows: - the fundamental principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; - the essential elements of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the actions (favorable and/or unfavorable) of the different classes of drugs and toxicants; - the main therapeutic uses and contraindications of drugs; - the essential elements to understand the variability of response to drugs in relation to genetic and pathophysiological factors as well as pharmacological interactions; - the methods of clinical pharmacology, including pharmacosurveillance and pharmacoepidemiology.

Course contents

The knowledge necessary to describe the drugs and/or combinations of drugs that constitute the foundations of medical therapy and to make appropriate pharmacological choices in relation to the pathophysiological bases of the main diseases of organs and/or systems (cardiovascular, endocrine-metabolic, etc.) will be covered. infectious; gastrointestinal; neuropsychiatric; osteoarticular; respiratory). For each class of drugs covered in class the student must know and be able to describe appropriately: the name of the drugs belonging to the class; pharmacodynamics; the pharmacokinetic characteristics and possible interactions; adverse reactions; therapeutic indications and methods of use (doses and/or routes of administration); absolute and/or relative contraindications to comorbidities

Classes of drugs treated:

Drugs for the autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic.
General and local anesthetic drugs.
Drugs for neuro-psychiatric diseases: anxiolytics and hypnotics; antidepressants; antipsychotics; antiepileptics; drugs for dementia and neurodegenerative diseases.
General principles of analgesia and analgesic drugs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids; anti-migraine
Drugs for cardiovascular diseases: antihypertensive drugs; heart failure medications; antiarrhythmic drugs; atherosclerosis and lipid-lowering drugs; drugs for ischemic heart disease; antiplatelet drugs; anticoagulant drugs
Drugs for endocrine-metabolic diseases: antidiabetics; estrogens, progestins (contraception and menopause); antigout: hypothalamic and pituitary hormones; thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs
Drugs for respiratory diseases: anti-asthmatics (bronchodilator drugs; anti-inflammatory drugs; antagonists/inhibitors of inflammatory mediators; modulators of the immune response)
Medicines for the gastrointestinal system: medicines against gastric acidity; antiemetics; antidiarrheals; purgatives
Immunomodulatory drugs
Antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antiprotozoans, anthelmintics
Anti-cancer drugs: anti-neoplastic chemotherapeutics, kinase inhibitors; cellular checkpoint inhibitors; monoclonal antibodies


Goodman and Gilman The pharmacological basis of therapy 13th edition, 2019 - Zanichelli Editor

Teaching methods

frontal lessons with interactive discussion of clinical cases

Assessment methods

The final exam of the integrated Pharmacology course will be based on an oral test which will be taken by the student with the two teachers, each of whom will separately ask questions relating to the topics of their competence covered in class. In this regard, we reiterate the importance of regularly attending lessons in order to acquire the right knowledge, the appropriate methods to be able to make the appropriate logical-deductive connections and the terminology that are necessary to be able to face the test comprehensively.

The aim is to verify the student's level of preparation, his ability to describe and apply his knowledge comprehensively based on appropriate logical-deductive connections.

The final evaluation will be based on incremental levels:

Somewhat limited knowledge of the topics covered in the course which emerges only with the help of the teacher, with expression in substantially correct language → 18-19;

Limited knowledge of the topics covered in the course that emerges independently, with expression in substantially correct language → 20-24;

Knowledge of a suitable number of topics covered in the course with good ability to make appropriate logical-deductive connections and good command of specific terminology → 25-29;

Very exhaustive knowledge of the topics covered in the course, with excellent ability to make appropriate logical-deductive connections and absolute mastery of the specific terminology → 30-30L

Teaching tools

Lessons with video projection. The teaching material will be made available to students in PDF format on the institutional website Teaching resources on Virtuale reserved for students enrolled at the University of Bologna, School of Medicine and Surgery.

Office hours

See the website of Federico Pea