Academic Year 2022/2023

  • Moduli: Annamaria Grandis (Modulo 1) Paolo Clavenzani (Modulo 2) Cinzia Benazzi (Modulo 3) Arcangelo Gentile (Modulo 4) Alessandro Spadari (Modulo 5)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2) Traditional lectures (Modulo 3) Traditional lectures (Modulo 4) Traditional lectures (Modulo 5)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Veterinary Medicine (cod. 8617)

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student: - will be able to understand the processes that led to the birth of Veterinary Medicine in Europe and, in particular, in Italy; - will be able to recognise the role played by the most important academics of the past in scientific progress and in the transmission of veterinary medical knowledge; - will possess the basis for contextualising and critically evaluating iconography of veterinary interest.

Course contents

The course will cover the fundamental steps that led to the birth and development of Veterinary Medicine. It will also deal with the didactic and artistic significance of anatomical drawing in the past and how the veterinarian and the environment in which he/she works have been represented in different historical periods.

Specifically, the course will be divided into 5 modules, within which the following topics will be addressed:

Module 1 (4 CFU; Prof. Annamaria Grandis)

- Definitions of "animal doctor" in time (marescalco, mulomedico, ippiatra, zooiatra, veterinarian);

- Theological and divinatory veterinary medicine in the Ancient world;

- The dogmatic veterinary medicine of the Greeks;

- The empirical veterinary medicine of the Romans;

- Scholastic and monastic veterinary medicine in the Middle Ages;

- The major anatomical discoveries on animals of the Renaissance;

- The scientific veterinary medicine of the age of Enlightenment;

- Popular medicine;

- Women in veterinary medicine;

- Representations of the veterinarian in art as theoretician and as practitioner;

- Veterinary medicine in the Art.

Module 2 (1 CFU; Prof. Paolo Clavenzani)

- Anatomical iconography over the centuries;

- Veterinary museum collections.

Module 3 (1 CFU; Prof. Alessandro Spadari)

- The veterinary instruments of the past;

- Military veterinary medicine and the farrier.

Module 4 (1 CFU; Prof. Cinzia Benazzi)

- The evolution of veterinary disciplines in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Module 5 (1 CFU; prof. Arcangelo Gentile)

- The birth of veterinary schools.


Chiodi V. (1981) Storia della veterinaria. EdAgricole (Bologna).

Veggetti A. e Maestrini N. (1984) L’insegnamento della veterinaria nell’Università di Bologna. Editografica (Bologna).

Bibliography provided by the lecturer.

pdf material provided by the lecturer.

Teaching methods

- Frontal lectures.

- Practical work in small groups on books from the antique collection, on the museum collections of Anatomy of Domestic Animals and Veterinary Anatomy, Pathology and Teratology, and on artworks related to Veterinary Medicine. Bibliographic research and in-depth study of a veterinarian of the past. The aim is to promote active student learning and to develop her/his ability to think critically.

Assessment methods

The assessment will take into account:

- the level of learning of the topics covered during the course;

- the ability to expose and critically analyse a selected artwork relating to veterinary medicine, or relating to the biography of a veterinarian of the past.

The assessment will also be an expression of the degree of involvement of the student in the course.

The purpose of the oral assessment is to verify the student's ability to apply his or her notional background and make the necessary logical-deductive connections.

The test is passed with a grade of at least 18/30. In case of the highest grade (30/30), honors may be awarded.

Specifically, the gradation of the final grade will be as follows:

Substantially comprehensive preparation on the topics covered in the course, ability to make independent choices of critical analysis and linking, full command of specific terminology, and ability to argue and self-reflect (30-30L).

Preparation on a large number of topics covered in the course, ability to make independent choices of critical analysis, mastery of specific terminology (25-29).

Preparation on a limited number of topics covered in the course and ability to analyze independently only on purely executive issues; expression in correct language (20-24).

Preparation on a very limited number of topics covered in the course and ability to analyze emerging only with the help of the lecturer; expression in overall correct language (18-19).

The student has the right to refuse the verbalization of the proposed positive grade at least 1 time.

Teaching tools

- Video projector

- Antique book collection of the Ercolani Library

- DIMEVET museum collections

Office hours

See the website of Annamaria Grandis

See the website of Paolo Clavenzani

See the website of Cinzia Benazzi

See the website of Arcangelo Gentile

See the website of Alessandro Spadari


Quality education Gender equality

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.