75213 - Medical Statistics

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Environment and Workplace Prevention Techniques (cod. 8487)

Learning outcomes

The main objective of this course is to provide basic knowledge on the following items:

-descriptive statistics

-elements of probability

-rates and methods of standardization

-computation of basic statistics using Excel

Course contents

The course contents are based on four main topics:

Part 1 - Descriptive Statistics (12h)

Types of data, qualitative and quantitative variables, discrete and continuous variables

Data presentation: frequency tables (frequency counts, relative frequencies) and graphical representations (e.g. pie charts, bar charts, histograms, scatter plot, time series, cartograms)

Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode and percentiles)

Measures of variability (range, interquartile range, deviation, variance, standard deviation, variation coefficient)

Skewness and kurtosis

Part 2 - Relationships between two variables (4h)

Contingency Tables

Joint frequencies and joint relative frequencies

Conditional and marginal distributions

Relationships between two variables

Chi-squared statistics

Tschuprow’s T

Part 3 - Elements of Probability (4h)

Introduction to probability

Remarks on the concepts of probability

Definition of simple events and sample space

Operations on events (Venn diagrams)

Axioms of probability (Kolmogorov)

Rules of the probability (additive, multiplicative)

Conditional probability

Bayes’ theorem

Part 4 - Rates and Rate Standardization (4h)

Crude rates

Specific rates

Standardization of rates (direct and indirect methods)

Lab (12h)

Introduction to Microsoft Excel

Computer exercises using Excel


G. Cicchitelli. Statistica: Principi e Metodi. Pearson, Milano, 2012.

Teaching materials (accessible through VIRTUALE platform), including a self-evaluation test.

Teaching methods


Classroom exercises

Computer exercises (using Excel)

To attend lab room activities, students have to take an online class about “formazione sulla sicurezza nei luoghi di studio” (module 1 and 2).

Assessment methods

Medical Statistics

The aim is to evaluate whether students have learnt the basic tools of the subject, including the use of Excel. In particular, students should achieve the following learning outcomes:

  • knowledge of the basic tools of Statistics
  • use of those tools for data analysis
  • interpretation of the findings

Lab exam using Excel: 5-6 exercises to be solved using Excel. Each exercise is composed of different questions, including the interpretation of the findings. The exam is located in the computer room (exam duration: 1 hour and 30 minutes).

In case of need, lab exam will be taken online. It will consist of: 1) exercises to be solved using Excel; and 2) multiple choice test with only one correct option. The scores will be the following: +1 for correct answers, -0.25 for incorrect answers, 0 for unanswered questions. Exam duration: 1 hour.

Students are allowed to use calculators. Notes and formulary are not permitted.

The evaluation of the exam is expressed as a mark out of 30.

Students must sign up using AlmaEsami. Late registrations are not admitted.

Science of Prevention III

The final score will be calculated as weighted average of the individual marks of the following exams:

  • Medical Statistics (3 CFU)
  • Epidemiology – Vaccination Strategies (3 CFU)
  • First Aid (3 CFU)

To be noted that Dr. Gori (lecturer in Epidemiology – Vaccination Strategies) will be in charge of the recording of the final score.

Teaching tools

Whiteboard, PC, video projector, computer lab.

Office hours

See the website of Stefania Curti


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.