93846 - Aerospace Structures

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Docente: Enrico Troiani
  • Credits: 6
  • SSD: ING-IND/04
  • Language: English
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Forli
  • Corso: Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Aerospace Engineering (cod. 5723)

    Also valid for Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Aerospace Engineering (cod. 5723)

Learning outcomes

The student becomes familiar with the classical methods for the evaluation of stress and strain field in aerospace structures, with particular focus on the semi-monocoque configurations and thin plates; he/she deepens the concepts related to the stability and buckling of structures; he/she also acquires in-depth knowledge of numerical methodologies used in the design of aerospace structures.

Course contents

1) Stress and deformation evaluation in aerospace structures:

Basic of the beam theory and its application to thin-walled aeronautical structures;


Restrained warping;

Hyperstatic and energetic methods;

Finite element method;

Theory of the plates and shell

2) Analysis of the elastic equilibrium stability and collapse

The stability concept;

Beam primary instability and collapse;

Beam torsional instability;

Instability of thin plates and collapse;

Secondary buckling of beams


E.F. Bruhn; “Analysis and design of flight vehicles structures”, ed. Jacobs
T.H.G. Megson; “Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students”, ed. Arnold
R. Rivello; “Theory and analysis of flight structures”, ed. McGraw-Hill

Teaching methods

Lectures are held by the course teacher. Explicit demonstration of the mathematical approach will be followed by applications to practical aerospace problems

Assessment methods

Procedure for the online exam of Aerospace Structures A Practical indications for students

1. Method of execution of the exam

The test takes place with the help of the Esami On Line and Zoom platforms. It is therefore mandatory to install the Zoom application on your PC in advance.

To this end, it is recommended to carefully read the instructions given at the link: https://www.unibo.it/it/servizi-e-opportunita/servizi-online/servizi-online-per-studenti-1/lezioni-ed-esami-online [https://www.unibo.it/it/servizi-e-opportunita/servizi-online/servizi-online-per-studenti-1/lezioni-ed-esami-onlinei] in the section "How to take a written exam online with Zoom"

In short:

a. Download the Zoom app and log in with your university credentials.

Warning: it is crucial to log in by clicking on "Sign in with SSO" and entering the domain unibo.zoom.us in the following step

b. Check the operation of the webcam and microphone on the Zoom platform

c. Check that the correct permissions are set on your computer so that you can share the screen on Zoom (NB: for Mac systems it may be necessary to grant a specific authorization from the privacy menu).

d. Make sure you have a working PC's audio, microphone and webcam or, if possible, an external webcam. It is not allowed to use a second device connected to Zoom for surveillance (it would not allow sharing of the desktop and would also block the other participants in the exam from doing it) but it is possible to use a second device as an external webcam via the DroidCam, Epoccam or similar.

2. Preparation of the workplace

It is essential to set up the workplace in a room free of other people. For the duration of the test, the entry of others into the room is not allowed.

Identify the position of the webcam suitable for the exam: the webcam will initially have to show the room and, during the test, face, hands, sheet and mobile phone simultaneously.

It is also essential to disable all cloud clients synchronization (Dropbox, Onedrive, Google Backup & Sync), taking care that this is visible from the icons in the taskbars. It is also forbidden to use any messaging client (WhatsApp web, Telegram web, Twitter, etc,), both on PCs and on smartphones, tablets, etc.).

Multiple screens are not allowed.

3. Connection

Make sure you have a stable internet connection, preferably via cable. Make sure to block other applications that could reduce the bandwidth (updates, video downloads etc.). We recommend the use of your smartphone in "hotspot" mode in case of unexpected connection problems.

Staying always online is essential to ensure the correctness of the exam. Short, occasional disconnections due to network problems will be tolerated if limited in number and duration.

In the event of incorrect behavior by the student, the exam is considered failed and must be repeated in one of the following sessions. In any case, the teacher reserves the right to use his own judgment according to the contingent situation. If prolonged disconnection episodes have occurred, the test must be repeated. If a student leaves the post before the end of the test, he will be assumed to have retired and his/her exam will be considered failed.

4. What to do before the exam

a. Register for the exam via ALMAESAMI. Students  not on the list and students not up to date with the payment of the enrollment fees and / or presenting other impediments reported by AlmaEsami will NOT BE ADMITTED to the test.

b. Download a document scanning app (e.g. Simple Scanner or CamScanner or AdobeScan) in advance on your Smartphone and do some tests to understand how to create a single pdf document

c. Prepare blank sheets for the written part, taking care to insert the surname / name / enrollment number on each side of the sheets.

5. What to do on the day of the exam

a. Occupy the station, which must be ready, as described in section 2. Preparing the station.

b. In advance of the test start time (at least 15 minutes before), enter on EOL at the link https://eol.unibo.it/

c. Prepare an identity document with photo and the smartphone that must be in airplane mode and positioned with the screen on the table at hand.

d. To access the virtual classroom, click on "Zoom Meeting" and turn on the webcam: the system will put you on hold. Students will be admitted to the main classroom and then recognition will proceed. When you are called for recognition, please speak for 2-3 seconds to facilitate recognition.

e. After recognition, the teacher will assign you to a sub-classroom ("breakout room"), supervised by two colleagues who will take care of the surveillance. They will ask you to keep your desktop always shared (all the desktop, not only the browser!): this is mandatory for the regular execution of the exam. Only the internet browser connected to EOL and the zoom software must be open on your desktop. You may be asked to show via webcam the entire room at 360 °. You must always keep the microphone on and at high volume.

f. When indicated, without closing or leaving the Zoom room or turning off screen sharing, go to EOL.

g. The teacher will provide you with the password to start the exam.

h. Solve the open question on the sheets.

i. The time for the test is 1 hour, but the timer will indicate 1 h 15 minutes. In the additional 15 minutes it will be possible to perform ONLY the procedure of scanning and loading the .pdf file

j. In case of disconnection or exit from the zoom program, connect as quickly as possible to the zoom link to access the main room again. The supervisor of the room will give you indications on how to proceed.

k. After 1 h (or even earlier for those who finish the test in advance) each student will call an supervisor, show all the sheets with the assignment to the webcam and then he can proceed to scan the exam and the identity document in a single file. Once the exam is shown to the webcam, no further changes can be made.

l. Once the scan is complete, upload the PDF file (with the pages in sequential order) to EOL after having named it as: Surname_Name_registration number.PDF. For example, the student Matteo Rossi, with registration number 12345678, will name his file: Rossi_Matteo_12345678.PDF. Contact the supervisor to communicate the upload of the file and wait for confirmation. At this point, the test can be declared concluded, and the student can leave the virtual classroom.

6. Exam format

Verification of learning is carried out through a written test on the topics discussed during the lectures. During the exam it is not possible to use notes, handouts, books under penalty of exclusion from the test.

Teaching tools

Computer slides by LCD projector are used in addition to the standard blackboard

Office hours

See the website of Enrico Troiani


Quality education Decent work and economic growth Industry, innovation and infrastructure Climate Action

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.