91683 - Complements of Analitical Chemistry

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Moduli: Andrea Zattoni (Modulo 1) Elisa Michelini (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Chemistry and Materials Chemistry (cod. 8006)

Learning outcomes

The course aims to provide the students with basic knowledge on sampling and sample treatment methods of solid, liquid and gaseous samples, also according to official methods of analysis. The students also acquire the basic skills on the application of bioanalytical methods to the analysis of biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids, and are able to select and optimize the most proper bioanalytical technique for a given analyte.

Course contents


Generalities, definitions and role in the analytic process. Randomized sampling and sampling plan.

Sampling of solids, liquids and gases. Effect of sampling on the uncertainty of the results.

Sample pre-treatment techniques.

Characteristics of an "ideal" solubilization. Solubilization of inorganic solids. Sample mixing and homogenization techniques. Acid and alkaline attacks. Sample solubilization by fusion. Decomposition of organic and biological matrices. Microwave assisted decomposition.

Separation and preconcentration techniques.

Solvent extraction. Extraction in Soxhlet. Extraction of chelated complexes. Extraction efficiency. Extraction curves. Extraction with supercritical fluids. Solid phase extraction (SPE). Other separation and preconcentration techniques: ion exchange, volatilization, coprecipitation, precipitation and electrolytic precipitation.

Bioanalytical techniques

- Basic principles of the main bioanalytical techniques and bio-recognition reactions

- Immunological methods: competitive and non-competitive quantitative methods, homogeneous and heterogeneous methods, synthesis of hapten-protein derivatives for the production of antibodies, production and characterization of poly- and monoclonal antibodies and of fluorescent, chemiluminescent and colorimetric tracers; development and optimization of an immunological method.

- Enzymatic methods: principles of enzymatic kinetics, Michaelis-Menten equation, determination of the catalytic activity of enzymes through single and coupled enzymatic reactions, one-point and two-point methods, development and optimization of an enzymatic method.

- Genetic methods: Hybridization techniques and gene probes, nucleic acid amplification techniques (conventional and real time PCR) and outline sequencing with reference to quantitative analytical aspects.

- Applications of micro and nanotechnologies in bioanalytics: baisics of biosensors, classes of biospecific elements, signal types and transducer types, examples of biosensors and applications.


- Slides available at https://virtuale.unibo.it (requires authentication)

- Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Daniel C. Harris (W. H. Freeman).

- Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry by Skoog and West, F.J. Holler, S.R. Crouch (Saunders College Publishing).

- Bioanalytical Chemistry (English Edition) 2nd Edition, Wiley di Susan R. Mikkelsen, Eduardo Cortón, ISBN: 1118302540, 2016

Teaching methods

The course consists of 6 credits, divided in two modules of 3 CFU. Each module includes 2 CFU room lectures (12 h) and 1 CFU laboratory (6 h). During the lectures the topics of the course will be presented and discussed, with theoretical insights and explanatory examples. The course includes laboratory exercises, which will be illustrated during lectures. The exercises are designed to allow each student to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge of the analytical techniques for working in a laboratory according to quality and safety guidelines. Each student will elaborate the results obtained in the laboratory by using the statistical tools learned in the cours, and will write down reports on the exercises.

Assessment methods

Note: assessment methods could vary in case of extension of the anti-COVID measures. The teacher will promptly inform students of any variation.

Oral exam on the whole course program. A detailed list of the topics included in the test will be available at the end of the course on http://virtuale.unibo.it

The evaluation criterion is based on the demonstration by the student to be able to use and apply the knowledge, information and cultural tools provided by the course, and on the examination of the laboratory reports. The threshold of learning sufficiency is represented in particular by the demonstration of skills and critical understanding of the course topics for discussion.

The teachers are available for further clarification and to verify the level of preparation prior to examination.

Teaching tools

Projector, computer, laboratories, tools and glassware, spectrophotometers. Material: the material presented in class will be made available to the student in electronic format via the Internet. Such material should be printed and brought to class.

Possible distance teaching will be given through Microsoft Teams with the support of Microsoft 365 software suite.

To get educational materials: https://virtuale.unibo.it 
Access is reserved to the students enrolled on the course.

Office hours

See the website of Andrea Zattoni

See the website of Elisa Michelini


Good health and well-being Clean water and sanitation Oceans Life on land

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.