84358 - General Physiopathology

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Moduli: Maurizio Brigotti (Modulo 1) Paolo Garagnani (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 9210)

Learning outcomes

Describe general physiopathologic processes associated with disease, including hemostasis and hemorrhage, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism, infarction, hypoxia and cyanosis, and oedema.

Course contents

A- General Pathology

1- Course outline; cell adaptation (hypertrophy, atrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia)

2- Cell injury; cellular senescence; Free radicals

3- Ca2+ related disorders; Autophagy

4- Cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, anoikis, pyroptosis, NETosis, entosis, ferroptosis)

5- Acute inflammation: cellular mediators

6- Acute inflammation: soluble mediators

7- Dystrophic and metastatic calcifications

8- Resolution of inflammation

9- Injuries by exotoxins and biological effects of endotoxins

10- Alcohol-related diseases

11- Chronic inflammation; granulomatous diseases

12- Steatosis

13- Wound Healing: regeneration, repair and granulation tissue; Pathogenesis of fibrosis

14- Environmental pathology (electricity, chemicals)

15- Radiation; smoking

16- Non-coding RNA related diseases


B- General Physiopathology

1-Cirrhosis and amyloidosis

2- Hypertension

3- Edema: etiology and pathogenesis

4- Atherosclerosis: etiology and pathogenesis

5- Atherosclerosis: general features and classification

6- Hypoxia and cyanosis: etiology and pathogenesis

7- Thermal regulatory dysfunction; burns; altitude-related illness

8- Systemic effects of inflammation; fever

9- Endothelial dysfunctions

10- Physiopathology of coagulation and hemorrhagic diseases

11- Thrombosis: classification, etiology and pathogenesis

12- Diabetes

13- Metagenomics and diseases

14- Embolism: classification, etiology and pathogenesis

15- Sepsis; disseminated intravascular coagulation

16-Infarction: etiology and pathogenesis; Shock: etiology and pathogenesis


Rubin’s Pathology 7th, Wolters Kluwer ed

Robbins and Cotran, Pathologic Basis of Disease 10th edition, Elsevier ed

Teaching methods

The General Pathology and General Physiopathology courses consist of 8 CFU of 64 hours of lectures supported by slides. Attendance to learning activities is mandatory; the minimum attendance requirement to be admitted to the final exam is 60% of lessons.

Assessment methods

Student learning will be checked at the end of the Integrated Course “Basic Mechanisms of Diseases” by an oral exam. A passing grade (i.e. mark above or equal to 18/30) in each module of the Course (Immunology, General Pathology, General Physiopathology and Gen. Path. Lab) is required to obtain the final assessment. The final mark will be calculated as the weighted mean (based on CFUs) of the four marks. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the exams will be held at distance with Microsoft Teams platform. Students should register as usual in Almaesami, and will receive an e-mail with the link and timetable of the exam sessions.

Teaching tools

Teaching slides will be available on line at Unibo e-learning website https://iol.unibo.it

Office hours

See the website of Maurizio Brigotti

See the website of Paolo Garagnani


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.