84357 - General Pathology

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Moduli: Massimiliano Bonafè (Modulo 1) Manuela Ferracin (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 9210)

Learning outcomes

Identify the fundamental causes and mechanisms of disease, and the associated alterations in the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs and systems. Describe basic mechanisms of cellular pathology, including cell injury, necrosis, and cellular adaptations. Describe the etiology and classification of inflammatory responses, and the mechanisms involved in healing and repair.

Course contents

A-General Pathology

1-Course outline; cell adaptation (hypertrophy, atrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia)

2-Cell injury; cellular senescence; Free radicals;

3-Ca2+ related disorders; autophagy

4-Cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, anoikis, pyroptosis, NETosis, entosis, ferroptosis)

5-Acute inflammation: cellular mediators

6-Acute inflammation: soluble mediators

7-Dystrophic and metastatic calcifications

8-Resolution of inflammation

9 - Injuries by exotoxins and biological effects of endotoxins

10-Alcohol-related diseases

11-Chronic inflammation; granulomatous diseases


13- Wound Healing: regeneration, repair and granulation tissue; Pathogenesis of fibrosis

14-Environmental pathology (electricity, chemicals)

15-Radiation; smoking

16-Non-coding RNA related diseases

B-General Physiopathology

1-Cirrhosis and amyloidosis


3-Edema: etiology and pathogenesis

4-Atherosclerosis: etiology and pathogenesis

5-Atherosclerosis: general features and classification;

6- Hypoxia and cyanosis: etiology and pathogenesis

7-Thermal regulatory dysfunction; burns; altitude-related illness

8-Systemic effects of inflammation; fever

9-Endothelial dysfunctions

10- Physiopathology of coagulation and hemorrhagic diseases

11- Thrombosis: classification, etiology and pathogenesis

12- Diabetes

13-Metagenomics and diseases

14-Embolism: classification, etiology and pathogenesis

15-Sepsis; disseminated intravascular coagulation

16-Infarction: etiology and pathogenesis; Shock: etiology and pathogenesis


Rubin’s Pathology 7th, Wolters Kluwer ed.

Robbins and Cotran, Pathologic Basis of Disease 10th edition

Teaching methods

The General Pathology and General Physiopathology courses consist of 8 CFU of 64 hours of lectures supported by slides. Attendance to learning activities is mandatory; the minimum attendance requirement to be admitted to the final exam is 60% of lessons

Assessment methods

Student learning will be checked at the end of the Integrated Course “Basic Mechanisms of Diseases” by an oral exam.

A passing grade (i.e. mark above or equal to 18/30) in each module of the Course (Immunology, General Pathology, Physio-pathology and Gen. Path. Lab) is required to obtain the final assessment.

The final mark will be calculated as the weighted mean (based on CFUs) of the four marks.

Marks below 18 (failing grades) will not be recorded. Marks equal to 30 in all the questions will be awarded with a 30 cum laude (30 with honors).

In case of failure or refusal, students can retake the exam on the first available examination date

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the exams could be held at distance with Microsoft Teams platform.

Students should register as usual in Almaesami, and will receive an e-mail with the link and timetable of the exam sessions.

Teaching tools

Teaching slides will be available on line at Unibo e-learning website https://iol.unibo.it

Office hours

See the website of Massimiliano Bonafè

See the website of Manuela Ferracin


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.