30995 - Consolidation of Buildings

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Docente: Luca Landi
  • Credits: 6
  • SSD: ICAR/09
  • Language: Italian
  • Moduli: Luca Landi (Modulo 1) Giacomo Bernagozzi (Modulo 2)
  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures (Modulo 1) Traditional lectures (Modulo 2)
  • Campus: Ravenna
  • Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Building Engineering (cod. 9199)

Learning outcomes

The objective of the course is to provide the tools and the knowledge for designing interventions of structural consolidation in existing buildings.

Course contents

Requirements/Prior knowledge

A prior knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of statics and mass geometry, the solution methods of isostatic and simple statically redundant structures, the beam’s theory and cross-section analysis according to De Saint Venant is required to attend with profit this course.

This knowledge is usually acquired by passing the exam of Scienza delle Costruzioni (Structural Mechanics).

Fluent spoken and written Italian is a necessary pre-requisite: all lectures and tutorials, and all study materials will be in Italian.

Course Contents

The course of Consolidation of Buildings (6 cfu) is part of the integrated course Technique of constructions T C.I. (12 cfu) and consists of two modules, one of 4 credits and one of 2 credits.

Steel Structures

  1. Production of steel, physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the material, tests and treatments, regulatory framework, classification of the types of steel, types of profiles;
  2. Verification methods of the elements (allowable stress method - limit state method), verifications of the structural safety for traction force, bending moment, shear force, classification of the cross-sections, verifications for combined bending and traction, resistance domains;
  3. Stability of the structural elements, members in compression (simple/composite profiles), members subjected to flexural-torsional buckling, members in combined bending and compression, resistance domains, verification methods;
  4. Verifications of the deformability of the elements;
  5. Typologies of steel buildings, truss structures, design of the main elements of a truss structure, of the columns, of the roof/lateral bracings, of the foundations;
  6. Bolted connections and welded connections.

Masonry Buildings

  1. Typologies of modern and historical masonries, physical and mechanical properties of masonries, constitutive models;
  2. Behaviour under compression, traction, in-plane and out-of-plane bending, shear resistance capacity;
  3. Second-order geometric effects, global models, structural analysis;
  4. Verifications of the structural safety of masonries, references to codes;
  5. Masonry buildings under earthquakes.

Interventions of Consolidation

  1. Investigation methodologies for existing buildings, survey of the crack pattern, of the structural failures, of the structural damage and diagnosis of the causes;
  2. Methodologies for performing a geometrical-structural survey, definition of the mechanical parameters of masonry, evaluation of the safety of the building and monitoring of the stress state and of its evolution in time;
  3. Operating methodologies for the selection and the realisation of interventions of consolidation, methods for restoration, for improving the resistance capacities of the structure, interventions of static consolidation and main applications;
  4. Interventions of seismic improvement and seismic retrofit.



  1. C. Bernuzzi, “Progetto e verifica delle strutture in acciaio secondo le Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni e l’Eurocodice 3”, Hoepli
  2. G. Ballio, F.M. Mazzolani, "Strutture in acciaio", Hoepli
  3. V. Nunziata, "Teoria e pratica delle strutture in acciaio", ed. Dario Flaccovio Editore.
  4. B. Cordova, “Manuale pratico per la progettazione delle strutture in acciaio”, Hoepli.


  1. A. Castellani, E. Faccioli, "Costruzioni in zona sismica", seconda edizione, ed. Hoepli, Milano.
  2. T. Tassios, "Meccanica delle Murature", ed. Liguori.
  3. S. Mastrodicasa, "Dissesti statici delle strutture edilizie", sesta edizione, ed. Hoepli, Milano.
  4. N. Augenti, “Il calcolo sismico degli edifici in muratura”, Utet
  5. M. A. Pisani, "Consolidamento delle strutture -Guida ai criteri, ai materiali e alle tecniche più utilizzati", ed. Hoepli, Milano.
  6. R. Antonucci, "Restauro e recupero degli edifici a struttura muraria", ed. Maggioli.
  7. G. Croci, "Conservazione e restauro strutturale dei beni architettonici". UTET.
  8. G. Sara', "Restauro Strutturale". Liguori.
  9. Consorzio CREA, "L'acciaio nel Recupero Edilizio e nel Restauro", Massa.
  10. G. Cangi, “Manuale del recupero strutturale e antisismico”, Ed. DEI, Roma, 2012
  11. G. Magenes, “Metodi semplificati per l'analisi sismica non lineare di edifici in muratura” CNR-Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti
  12. A. Borri, “Manuale delle Murature Storiche”, voll. I e II, Ed. Dei, Roma, 2011

Teaching methods

The course is characterized by frontal lessons at the blackboard and with power-point slides.

Assessment methods

The test is unique and includes the learning assessment of the contents of all the modules that compose the course.

The learning assessment is carried out through the development of a design application and an oral final test, aimed at evaluating the acquisition of the theoretical aspects illustrated during the lectures regarding steel structures, masonry buildings and the main consolidation techniques for existing buildings.

The oral test consists normally of questions that concern the topics of the course program, with specific regard to: design and verification methods of structural steel elements, design criteria of masonry buildings and verification methods of the load-bearing elements, consolidation techniques and their use depending on the objectives to be attained, discussion of the design application.

To obtain a passing grade, students are required to at least demonstrate a knowledge of the key concepts of the subject and some ability for critical application. A failing grade will be awarded if the student shows knowledge gaps in key-concepts of the subject and/or logic failures in the analysis of the subject.

Teaching tools

Lecture-notes supplied by the teacher, reference codes, design examples.

Office hours

See the website of Luca Landi

See the website of Giacomo Bernagozzi


Sustainable cities

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.