90316 - General Pathology Lab-based Course (C2A)

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 8415)

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the students will know the general aspects of histopathology. They will be able to recognize and discuss the microscopic alterations caused by disease in cells and tissues, as well as the reactions to the etiologic agents. In particular, the student will be able to correlate the microscopic alterations with the disease mechanisms. Moreover, the course will enable the student to realize the limits and the diagnosis potential of general histopathology.

Course contents

Epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Metastasis. Reversible cell injury and fatty change, amyloidosis. Necrosis and infarction. Acute and chronic inflammation. Granulation tissue. Liver cirrhosis and steatosis. Atherosclerosis. Thrombosis.


Massimo DERENZINI. Esercitazioni di istopatologia generale. Dupress

Teaching methods

Modifica Teaching methods

This teaching is organized into lectures, virtual microscopy and practical lessons in the laboratory of histopathology.

Each hystopatology practical will be preceded by a lecture. Lectures aim at introducing and explaining the individual topics, together with the "pictures" of the four-six related hystological preparations that will be examined by the students under the microscope.

Tissue slides can be seen “on-line” through the virtual microscopy. The system allows to “explore” the tissue sections from the personal computer. Using this system is particularly fruitful for the students' individual training.

For practical lessons, students will be assigned to groups to ensure the individual access to microscopes.

Assessment methods

The oral exam aims to assess whether the student has acquired an appropriate knowledge and has reached the expected goals. The student's ability to focus on the different topics of the general pathology and pathophysiology program will be evaluated. The capability of making logical-deductive links, also referring to the specific morphological alterations, will be evaluated. Conceptual linearity and language adequacy will be taken into consideration as additional elements of evaluation. The examen includes the observation and oral description of a histopathological preparation until the recognition of the specific pathological findings.

Graduation of the final mark

Insufficient: lacunous preparation. Serious and repeated conceptual errors.

18-19: knowledge of basic concepts without serious gaps. Concepts and language within acceptable levels.

20-24: knowledge of the basic concepts without gaps. Ability to analyze and create connections in a partially autonomous way. Concepts and language in the average.

25-29: good or very good preparation, or even excellent but with inaccuracies that compromise the achievement of full marks. Presentation of concepts in the right succession. Good language.

30-30L: complete, consolidated, excellent preparation without any imprecision. Ability to contextualize and profile topics. Presentation of concepts in the right succession. Very good language.

The results from the general pathology and pathophysiology examinations will contribute 2/3 (1/3 +1/3) to the final mark. These examinations will take place together with the laboratory examination. The latter will contribute 1/3 to the final mark. The final mark will derive from the arithmetic average of the marks reported in the three examinations. If this result is a fraction of a unit, the next higher (for --, 66 values) or lower (for --, 33 values) whole number will be taken as the final mark. Laude will be given to the student who was proposed by at least one of the three Professors and only if full marks (30/30) were reached in all three examinations.

Teaching tools

The slides of the presentations, together with a specific Guide prepared by the teacher, will be fully available for the students at "Virtuale".

Tissue slides can be seen also through the virtual microscopy service http://virtualmicroscopy.patologia-sperimentale.unibo.it/. The system allows to “explore” the hystological sections representative of the different diseases.

The histopathology lab is equipped with 48 microscopes.

Office hours

See the website of Carla Renata Arciola


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This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.