72878 - Applied Photogrammetry M

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Second cycle degree programme (LM) in Civil Engineering (cod. 0930)

Learning outcomes

The course provides the knowledge necessary for planning and executing, by photogrammetric techniques and/or laserscanning, 3D surveys and representation of buildings and infrastructures, monuments, urban centres and cities. Some aspects related to non-cartographic applications are discussed, principally in the field of Cultural Heritage, together with the integration with other Geomatic techniques.

Course contents

Photogrammetry, laserscanning and the other surveying techniques in Geomatics. Remarks on the historical development.

Coordinate systems in photogrammetry. Central projection and Projective transformation: basic mathematical remarks, collinearity equations. The "normal case" in stereopair processing.

Photographic equipment and techniques (analogic and digital systems), color theory. Geometrical and radiometrical characteristics for digital acquisition, digital images, image processing and analysis. Metric and semi-metric film-based cameras. Aerial and terrestrial digital cameras. GPS-IMU systems for direct orientation.

The orientation procedures.

Interior orientation for a film based and for a digital camera. The calibration of non metric digital cameras: techniques and algorithmic approaches.

Exterior orientation: of a single image, of a stereopair in two stages, of a stereopair in a single stage. The survey of the Ground Control Points. The Photogrammetric Triangulation by independent models and by bundle block adjustment.

The main components of a plotting analytic instrument, digital photogrammetric workstations. Stereoscopic and monoscopic plotting, specific solutions provided by digital photogrammetric workstations.

Digital image matching and different strategies for 3D model reconstruction, automatic processing of the photogrammetric stages. Digital Terrain Models (DTM), Digital Surface Models (DSM) and derived products.

Rectificationof digital images.

Planning and realization of a survey: the aerial case and the terrestrial one. The survey of buildings and monuments with complex geometrical properties. Different hardware/software configurations for close-range surveying (architecture, civil engineering, archaeology, industry, etc.)

Terrestrial Laser scanning as a complementary technique for 3D surveying in building, architectural and industrial applications: from data acquisition to visualization of point clouds, generation of the mesh and derived products.

Terrestrial laserscanning instruments and data processing software.

Integration of photogrammetric and laser data with other products (multispectral remote sensing, mobile mapping systems, GIS, diagnostic technologies for Cultural Heritage surveying and monitoring).


Scientific publications and documents provided during the lectures.

KRAUS Karl: "Photogrammetry from Images and Laser Scans", de Gruyter, 2007.

SELVINI A., GUZZETTI F.: Fotogrammetria Generale, ed. UTET, Torino, 2000.

MIKHAIL, BETHEL, McGLONE: Introduction to modern photogrammetry, Wiley, 2001.

ATKINSON K.B.: "Close Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision". Wittles Publishing, 2001.

GUIDI G., BERALDIN J.A., RUSSO M.: "Acquisizione 3D e modellazione poligonale", McGraw-Hill, 2010.

Teaching methods

Lectures and exercises in Laboratory and on the field.

Analysis and discussion by examples of real cases.

Assessment methods

The final exam verifies the acquisition of the expected knowledge and skills by carrying out a written and oral test, without the help of notes or books.

Following the national emergency state of 31 January 2020 and the issuing of D.L. February 23 2020 n. 6, containing urgent measures regarding the containment and management of the epidemiological emergency from COVID 19, and in order to give continuity to the verification processes, the exam can be taken at the students' homes in online mode.

Before making the test, it is necessary to install software on your phone that can produce pdf files such as CamScanner (https://www.camscanner.com/) or TapScanner (https: //tap-scanner.it.aptoide. com / app).

The written test consists of 15 multiple-choice questions of which only one is correct. Each correct answer gives 2/30. Wrong answers give 0.

The test must be carried out within the indicated time range. From the moment of the beginning it lasts 40 minutes.

Once you move on to the next question, you will not be able to go back.

At the end of the test and at the end of the time, the overall score will be displayed and the correct answers relating to each question will be indicated.

The oral exam will be held at the end of the written test in alphabetical order.

At the time of the test, students must have an identification document (Identity Card or Driving License or Passport) and a badge, and show them to the examiners. In addition, the aforementioned documents must be scanned before the test, so the candidate has a pdf file available with the scan of a document and badge (scan both sides).

In order to take the exam, it is necessary to have all the tools listed below:

- a stable internet network;

- a desktop or notebook (hereafter PC) connected to the electricity network and to Internet.

- a smartphone or tablet (hereafter mobile device) connected to the electricity network and to Internet, equipped with a video camera, which will be used as a recognition and means of control by the examiners inside the Virtual Classrooms

- the ZOOM app that allows video meeting and access to the virtual classroom must be installed on the mobile device;

- white sheets and a pen.

- the possibility of using a quiet environment in one's own home, free from other people and correctly lit, in which to set up a space with the elements listed above.

The oral exam consists of an in-depth study aimed at ascertaining the acquired knowledge. Passing the exam will be guaranteed to students who demonstrate mastery and operational ability in relation to the key concepts illustrated in the course.

Teaching tools

The most significant part of the course is designed to practical activities on the field and in the laboratory, by means of commercial, scientific and open source programs.

Links to further information

http://www.photogrammetry.com; http://www.dicam.unibo.it/it/Centro-laboratori/larig

Office hours

See the website of Antonio Zanutta


Industry, innovation and infrastructure Sustainable cities Climate Action

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.