15548 - Physical Training Theory and Methodology

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

This course starts from the physiological, biochemical, and neuro-psychological factors characterizing the adaptations of the human organism to the different kinds of physical exercise.

On these bases the course provides methodological and didactical tools to correctly propose various methodologies and an appropriate planning of the training, different for each kind of sport and field of motor activity.

Course contents

Sport classification and performance models.

- Bioenergetics and biomechanical classifications.

- Classifications according to the technical characteristics.

- Relationships among performance model, methodologies and planning of the training.

General principles of the training.

- The parameters of the training load: Volume, Intensity, Density, Difficulty.

- Definition of external and inner load.

- Differences among regulation of the physiological functions during the exercise and consequent adaptation to a period of training.

- Load of training, recovery and adaptation: concept of overcompensation.

- Classification of the means of training: general, specific and competition exercises.

- The fundamental principles: continuity, progression, load-recovery alternation, variety and succession of the load, multilateral development, cyclical structure of the load, unity among general and specialized training

- The pedagogic principles: methodological progress, stability, evidence, adequacy, awareness.

- The training for the improvement of the performance, for the physical efficiency and wellness.

The motor abilities.

- Definition and classification of the Physical and Coordinative Abilities.

- Relationships among ability, motor skills and sport techniques.

- Evolution of the abilities and concept of sensitive phases for the training planning.

The sport and motor ability evaluation.

- Definition and purposes of the evaluation:

^ Diagnostic (to study the characteristics and the performance lacks of the subject),

^ To dosing the load of training,

^ To control the athlete performance state,

^ Prognostic tests as talent identification tools and the start up to the different sport.

- The presuppositions of a test: reliability, objectivity, validity, costs and times of execution.

- The procedural norms and the reference standardized norms (as percentiles).

The organization of the training.

- Long term Planning.

- Elements to be considered in the layout of training plan.

- Biological factors and cyclic structure of the training plans (crono-biology), concept of overtraining (differences between overreaching and overtraining).

- High level of performance definition and purposes of the periodization.

- Macro-cycle: to peak performance, with two pecks (double periodization), with more pecks.

- Phases of training: preparation, competition, transition.

- Modulation of the sub-phases: general, specific and competitive.

- Modulation of the parameters of the load during the phases: volume, intensity, density.

- Models of periodization:

^ According to Matveev,

^ According to Tschiene for evolved athletes,

^ Undulating periodization

^ For the young people,

^ For the endurance, strength and speed sports, and for the team sport..

- Objective of the intermediary cycles, models of meso-cycles: 3:1, 2:1, 1:1; increasing or lowering loads.

- The classification of Short time cycles or Micro-cycles during the phases of training, pre-competition, competition, recovery and their characterising load trends.


- Classification: according to the metabolic appointment and to the duration of the performances.

^ Long duration endurance and subtypes (I - II - III).

^ Middle duration endurance.

^ Short duration endurance.

^ Speed endurance.

- Factors affecting endurance: Anatomy-physiological factors, biochemical and metabolic factors, them correlations with capacity and power: aerobics, anaerobic lactic and alactacid.

- Anaerobic threshold concept.

- The evaluation with maximal test (Cooper) or incremental tests (Conconi, Mader).

- The evolution during the life of the different endurance abilities.

- Means and methods of training: Continuous, interval-training and repetition-training.

- Examples with specification of the training load for the different sports.


- Classification: Maximal strength (and relative strength), speed strength, endurance strength.

- Anatomy-physiological performance factors: muscular, nervous, and coordinative.

- The evaluation of strength:

^ Maximal test and test with the repetition maximum (RM),

^ Field test for speed strength (standing jumps and throwing, tools applied to the evaluation),

- The evolution during the life of strength and the gender differences.

- Means and methods of training:

^ Natural load exercises,

^The circuit-training

^Weight training exercises for the various strength types,

* Concentric methods (maximal and sub maximal loads, series, repetitions and contrast of loads)

* Pyramidal methods

* Eccentric and plyometric methods

* Isometric methods

* Hypertrophy methods (pre and post loaded)

* Electrical stimulation methods.

- The equipments for the strength training from the barbell to the isotonic and isokinetic devices,

- The execution of correct exercises and the principles for the prevention of injures.

Speed and rapidity.

- Classification: reaction time, cyclic and acyclic rapidity.

- Factors of performance: muscular, nervous, and coordinative.

- The evaluation: test of simple and complex motor reaction, test of rapidity and speed run.

- The evolution during the life of the rapidity.

- Means and methods of training: the maximal exercises, the decreased load methods to surpass the "speed barrier"

The coordinative abilities.

Classification: General and specific ability.

^ kinestetic and spatial differentiation ability,

^ space and time orientation ability

^ the ability of movement connection

^ static and dynamic balance ability

^ rhythm movement ability

^ motor adaptation ability

- Neuro-psychological factors basis of performance:

^ nervous system maturation,

^ receptors and afferent information,

^ motor patterns, memorization and connection,

^ new motor patterns elaboration and creation.

- Evaluation of the coordinative abilities.

- Evolution during the life and sensitive phases.

- Means and methods of training for the different abilities.

The technical and tactical preparation

- Background factors for the technique and tactic learning.

- The evaluation of the technique and tactic

- The motor patterns and the learning phases: raw coordination, fine coordination, varying availability.

- The demonstration, the identification of the errors, the correction and the other didactic interventions.

- Means and methods of training in the various phases of learning, exercises: preliminary, fundamental, of improvement phase, with difficult conditions.

The flexibility or joint mobility.

Classification: static and dynamics, passive and active flexibility.

- Factors: bones, joints, muscular, nervous

- Evolution during the life and gender differences.

- Means and methods of training: static, dynamic, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF).


Weineck J.. L'allenamento ottimale. Calzetti Mariucci. Perugia 2009.

Platonov V. N. Fondamenti dell'Allenamento e delle attività di gara. Calzetti Mariucci. Perugia 2004

Teaching methods

Frontal lectures.

Field and laboratory practical lessons.

Assessment methods

The evaluation takes place at the end of the course, through a preliminary written test (questionnaire with closed answers) followed by an oral examination (normally two days later).

The evaluation criteria for the exams will be described at the beginning of the course and published in the online teaching material (see field "Teaching Tools").

Teaching tools

Oral lessons.

Evaluation and training metodology laboratory.

The teaching materials will be available in electronic format (https://virtuale.unibo.it).

Office hours

See the website of Gabriele Semprini


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.