00768 - General Pathology

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Dietistic (cod. 8470)

Learning outcomes

The course will allow the student to obtain a basic knowledge of etiology and pathogenesis of human diseases, of environmental pathology, of the main cellular and tissue injuries and of the response to damage (including tissue repair and sclerosis), of the molecular and cellular basis of chronic and acute inflammation, of the specific mechanisms of immunity, and of the pathophysiological responses to illness.

Course contents

GENERAL PATHOLOGY (Prof. Maurizio Brigotti)

Introduction to general pathology: homeostasis, etiology and pathogenesis

Acquired etiologic factors: chemical agents (ethanol, tobacco smoke, metals, pneumoconiosis); physical agents (thermal injuries, nonionizing radiations).

Cellular adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia

Intracellular accumulations: water and electrolytes, lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides).

Steatosis and atherosclerosis: etiology and pathogenesis.

Cell injury and cell death: causes, general biochemical mechanisms; necrosis and apoptosis. Infarction.

Edema, hemostasis and thrombosis, embolism: etiology and pathogenesis.

Acute inflammation: vascular changes; cellular events; chemical mediators; outcomes of acute inflammation: resolution, fibrosis

Chronic inflammation: definition and causes, persistence of injurious agents (non-specific chronic inflammation, chronic suppurative inflammation), primary chronic inflammation (granulomatous diseases).

Healing and repair: wound healing.

Systemic effects of inflammation.

Immunology and immunopathology: innate and specific immunity; vaccines, primary and secondary lymphoid organs; maturation of lymphocytes; antigens; primary and secondary immune response; cells of immune system; presentation of antigens; immunoglobulins; complement system; antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity; major histocompatibility complex; hypersensitivity reactions; autoimmunity.

Neoplasia: definitions and nomenclature, characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms (differentiation and anaplasia, rate of growth, local invasion and metastasis).



Teaching methods

The university course is based on lectures (partly on-line).

Slides are available for downloading at the University web site (Virtuale).

Changes will be possible, due to the evolution of Covid-19 pandemic.

Assessment methods

Oral final examination that is based on the ability of the candidate to show a deep and integrated knowledge of the specific issues.

The examination is intended to assess the achievement of the following learning objectives:

- knowledge of the causes of human diseases (etiology)

- knowledge of basic pathogenetic mechanisms

- knowledge of the specific and non specific response to injury

Electronic registration on AlmaEsami is required. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the exams will be held at distance with Microsoft Teams platform. Students should register as usual in Almaesami, and will receive an e-mail with the link. Changes will be possible, due to the evolution of Covid-19 pandemic.

The final grade is calculated as the weighted mean (based on CFUs) of the marks obtained in the different modules of the Course, followed by verbalization.

Teaching tools

Lectures given by the professor (video-projector and PC).

Office hours

See the website of Maurizio Brigotti


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.