59620 - Pathology and Microbiology

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

The course will allow the student to obtaina basic knowledge of general pathology, immunopathology, oncology, general andorgan-specificpathophysiology, nomenclature of human diseases andmedicalterminology. The student will also obtain a knowledge of the biology andpathogenicity of microorganisms and viruses and, in particular,of the aetiological agents of the main infectious diseases that can be transmitted through contaminated herbal preparations.

Course contents

PATHOLOGY (Prof. Maurizio Brigotti)

Introduction to general pathology: homeostasis, etiology and pathogenesis

Acquired etiologic factors: chemical agents (ethanol, tobacco smoke, metals, pneumoconiosis); physical agents (thermal injuries, ionizing and nonionizing radiations).

Cellular adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia

Intracellular accumulations: water and electrolytes, lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides)

Cell injury and cell death: causes, general biochemical mechanisms; necrosis and apoptosis

Hemodynamic disorders: Atherosclerosis. thrombosis (Virchow's triad, venous, arterial and cardiac thrombi), pulmonary and systemic embolism, ischemia and infarction, edema (pathophysiologic categories of local and generalized transudative edema)

Acute inflammation: vascular changes; cellular events; chemical mediators; outcomes of acute inflammation: resolution, fibrosis

Chronic inflammation: definition and causes, persistence of injurious agents (non-specific chronic inflammation, chronic suppurative inflammation), primary chronic inflammation (granulomatous diseases).

Healing and repair: wound healing.

Systemic effects of inflammation: acute phase reactions, fever.

Immunology and immunopathology: innate and specific immunity; vaccines, primary and secondary lymphoid organs; maturation of lymphocytes; antigens; primary and secondary immune response; cells of immune system; presentation of antigens; immunoglobulins; complement system; ABO system; antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity; major histocompatibility complex; transplantation; hypersensitivity reactions; autoimmunity.

Neoplasia: definitions and nomenclature, characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms (differentiation and anaplasia, rate of growth, local invasion and metastasis). Epidemiology (cancer incidence, geographic and environmental factors, heredity). Molecular basis of cancer (oncogenes, cancer-suppressor genes). Biology of tumor growth (kinetic, angiogenesis, tumor progression, mechanisms of invasion and metastasis). Etiology of cancer (chemical, physical and microbial carcinogenesis)


MICROBIOLOGY- Prof.ssa Elisabetta Manaresi

Structure of the prokaryotic cell: general characteristics, study techniques, shape and arrangments, genome, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, cell wall (organisation and structure of peptoglycan and of the cell wall in Gram+, Gram-), external membrane, external structure (capsule, pili, flagelli)
Bacterial reproduction, bacterial sporae
Bacterial metabolism:
general characteristics; mechanisms of phosphorylation, energetic metabolism (fermentation, respiration, aerobiosis and anaerobiosis); macromolecular synthesis (DNA, RNA, proteins, peptoglycan)
Bacterial genetics: bacterial chromosome, accessorial genetic elements (plasmid, insertion sequences, trasposons); evolution of bacterial genomes: mutations, ricombination, transmission of genetic materials (transformation, conjugation, transduction)
Bacterial pathogenesis: exogenous and endogenous infections, mechanisms of host colonisation; mechanisms of pathogenesis, bacterial exotoxins and endotoxin; immunity and infectious processes
Bacterial cultivation: culture media, bacterial growth, isolating and maintenance cultures, bacterial counts, antibacterial drug susceptibility testing
Bacteria of medical relevance: staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, bacilli, clostrida, enterobacteria, listeria monocytogenes, vibrio, campylobacter, pseudomonas, legionella

Viral Structure: characteristics of viral genomes and virion structure (genome, capsid, pericapsid)
Viral Replication: general characteristics; phases of the viral replicative cycle (attachment, penetration, uncoating, macromolecular synthesis: viral replicative strategies, assembly)
Bacteriophages: structure and viral replicative cycle
Viral Pathogenesis: virus-cell interaction; kind of infection (cytocidal, persistent, latent, transforming); dynamics of the infectious process (penetration, localization and viral multiplication, viral transmission)
Viral Cultivation: cell cultures, virus isolation and titration, virus identification

Fungi: general biological characteristics, mechanisms of replication and pathogenesis; cultivation and counts, mycotoxins

Protozoa: general biological characteristics.





PRINCIPI DI MICROBIOLOGIA di Eudes Lanciotti Zanichelli Ed. Bologna, 2008

BROCK. BIOLOGIA DEI MICRORGANISMI. MICROBIOLOGIA GENERALE, VOL 1 di Madigan Michael T., Martinko John M. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Teaching methods

The university course is based on lectures (partly on-line).

Slides are available for downloading at the University web site (Virtuale).

Assessment methods

Oral final examination for both the learning modules; the final grade is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the marks obtained in the two modules of Pathology and Microbiology and is based on the ability of the candidate to show a deep and integrated knowledge of specific issues.

The examination is intended to assess the achievement of the following learning objectives:

- knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of microorganisms and viruses

- knowledge of the causes of human diseases (aetiology), and, in particular, of the aetiological agents of the main infectious diseases that can be transmitted through contaminated herbal preparations

- knowledge of basic pathogenetic mechanisms

- knowledge of the specific and non specific response of the organism to injury

Electronic registration on AlmaEsami is required and the verbalization of the final grade will be performed on the indicated date.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the exams will be held at distance with Microsoft Teams platform. Students should register as usual in Almaesami, and will receive an e-mail with the link.


Teaching tools

Lectures given by the professor (video-projectorand PC).

Office hours

See the website of Maurizio Brigotti

See the website of Elisabetta Manaresi


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.