29371 - Fruit Science

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Cesena
  • Corso: First cycle degree programme (L) in Food Technology (cod. 8528)

Learning outcomes

The aim of this teaching is to provide the basic knowledge on: 1) tree morphology and physiology; 2) tree vegetative and reproductive cycles; 3) fruit biochemical composition, development and physiology, 4) quality of fresh and processed fruits of apple, pear, peach, cherry, apricot, plums, kiwi. This knowledge will allow the student to manage fruits delivered from the orchad to the processing facilities according to their final use (fresh market or processing). Students will be able to select and introduce the most appropriate techniques to obtain a high quality product with the lowest environmental impact

Course contents


Students learn basic knowledge of tree morphology and physiology, phenological stages and interaction between tree and environment


Program description, and class organization, suggested books and bibliography, exam and grading methods

-Tree description

Canopy and root description: trunk, branches, twigs, shoots, buds, leaves, flowers and fruits, allelopathy, mycorrhiza. Field practical activity

-Vegetative and fruit cycle

Endogenous bioregulators. Exogenous biostimulants. Bud differentiation and development. Factors affecting flower bud differentiation. Fruit thinning. Bud dormancy. Fruit growth and maturation. Biochemistry of fruit ripening. Ripening index, fruit quality for fresh market and processing. Laboratory practical activity

-tree propagation

Sexual reproduction and tree multiplication. Seed development. Micro propagation, cutting technique, grafting. Bud genetic mutation. Practical activity in nursery


Students learn about the specific requirements and management technique fruit quality and processing techniques  of apple, pear, peach, apricot, cherry, plum and kiwifruit

Tree propagation. Soil orchard management, fertilization and irrigation. History, botanical classification, development, agronomical techniques, market and processing techniques of above mentioned species. Visit to a processing company. 


Manuale di ortofrutticoltura - ed. Sansavini S. and Ranalli P. Edagricole il sole 24ore (from pag 1 to pag 302)

Arboricoltura Generale. E. Baldini, CLUEB, Bologna.

Slide of the classes are available on the teacher website of the University of Bologna. However the class presentations are not sufficient to have an adequate preparation. On the other hand the teacher is available to provide International students with appropriate materials

Teaching methods


Teaching is divided in 2 parts: lessons in classroom (60%) and practical activities (40%) in gardens and laboratories. Classes include digital presentations with figures and photos to complete book information. Students are asked to participate to the class actively by explaining their point of view on some topics on environment and economic sustainability, management etc., and commenting professor issues. Regularly the level of understanding will be evaluated by going over the previous topics. Particular attention will be made on the practical activities, taking advantage from the garden of the Campus of Food Sciences. Students will be encouraged to participate practically to the field and lab demonstrations.

From this point of view student class attendance is encouraged as the principal part of the educational pathway

Laboratory activities are also scheduled to show the students the most important index to evaluate fruit ripening (refractometer, penetrometer, starch test, colorimeter, DAmeter, NIRs , ecc.).

Assessment methods

The exam will be run via web, until the end of COVID 19 pandemia emergency.

This teaching is part of the integrated course of PRODUZIONI VEGETALI along with ECOLOGIA DELLE PRODUZIONI ALIMENTARI E COLTURE ERBACEE, consequently the student learning acquisition will be evaluated at the end of the teaching lessons here mentioned and consist of a 40 minutes final exam, which aims to quantify the skillness and expected expertise through an oral examination with no possibility to use books, notes, or any other supports. The oral examination includes an interview on, at least, 3 topics discussed in class, with the aim to evaluate the student learning level, ability of critical analysis, capability to link the different topics taught in class, and apply the knowledge to the different environmental conditions.

According to the COVID 19 pandemia evolution and the consequent legislation on social behavior, class can be offered in classroom, online or both, using TEAMS digital platform

To pass the exam with the minimum grade (18/30), the student should show a sufficient knowledge of the 3 topics, or a good knowledge of 2 out of 3 questions. The maximum grade (30/30) will be obtained by showing an excellent knowledge of all the topic discussed

Teaching tools

The class will be run with the help of digital slides (power point or similar). The slides will be made of few words with large size of the letter using a clear font (i.e. 'arial'), to allow dyslexic student to follow the class. Upon agreement, during the reception time, the teacher is available to give exrtra explanation to student with learning difficulties.

During field and lab demonstrations, students will be followed by faculty or staff members.

Office hours

See the website of Moreno Toselli


Good health and well-being Quality education Reduced inequalities Responsible consumption and production

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.