00714 - Microbiology (AK-A)

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 8415)

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the student will know:

-general characteristic of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and parasites

-routes of transmission

-the establishment of pathogenic host-parasite interaction

-incubation period

-the role of immunity during infections

-the meaning of production of infection and production of disease

-the diagnosis of infection (direct and indirect). Collection of specimens, request for testing, tests employed, interpretation of tests

-basic concept of prophylaxis and therapy

-principle of treatment. Antimicrobial drugs and mechanism of resistance

-most relevant bacteria (focusing on their characteristic, mechanism of action, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy, available vaccine)

-most relevant viruses (focusing on their characteristic, mechanism of action, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy, available vaccine)

-most relevant protozoa, fungi and parasites (focusing on their characteristic, mechanism of action, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy, available vaccine).

Course contents

Teachers: prof.ssa Tiziana Lazzarotto and dr. Claudio Foschi

Medical microbiology. Manifestations of infection. Microbial causes of infection. Bacteria, viruses, protozoa and human infection. How microorganism cause diseases.

Immune response during the course of infection. Principles of direct and indirect diagnosis. Vaccines and gammaglobulins.

Bacteria. Structure, metabolism and reproduction. Spores and their meaning, bacterial genetics, mechanism of action antimicrobial drugs, mechanism of bacterial resistance. Diagnosis of bacterial infections.

Staphilococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Bacillus, Lysteria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Enterobacteriaceae, Helicobacter, clostridia (Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium difficile), spirochetes, Chlamydia, Legionella, Bordetella.

Protozoa. Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Amoeba, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii.

Fungi. General characteristics of fungi. The most important fungal infections for humans. Yeast (Candida albicans e Candida spp), Pneumocystis carinii, Cryptococcus neoformans. Mould (Aspergillus spp).

Viruses. Classification, structure and replication cycle (DNA and RNA viruses). Pathogenesis mechanisms. Diagnosis of viral infections. Antiviral drugs and Interferon.

Orthomyxovirus, Paramyxovirus, Enterovirus (Poliovirus, Coxsackievirus), Rubivirus, Papillomavirus, the etiologic agents of primary hepatitis viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, etc), Arbovirus, Coronavirus, Herpesvirus, Retrovirus.


Suggested text-book: Michele La Placa. Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises, XIV Ed.

Teaching methods

In-class lectures will be supported by video projector and PC.

Assessment methods


Oral examination with at least 3 questions about the course contents

The examination will evaluate whether the students have mastered the above listed skills and have reached the teaching objectives. The final oral examination will focus on specific questions about bacteriology, virology, mycology and parassitology (the mechanisms of pathogenesis, routes of transmission, microbiological diagnosis, therapy and vaccines).

Preparation on a very limited number of topics covered in the course and analytical skills that emerge only with the help of the teacher, expressed in an overall correct language --> 18-19

Preparation on a limited number of topics covered in the course and ability to autonomous analysis only on purely executive matters, expression in correct language --> 20-24

Preparation on a large number of topics covered in the course, ability to make autonomous choices of critical analysis, use of specific terminology --> 25-29

Exhaustive preparation on the topics covered in the course, ability to make independent choices of critical analysis and connection, use of specific terminology and ability to argue and self-reflection → 30-30L

Teaching tools

In-class lectures will be supported by slides. Slides will be available online at the end of the course on Virtuale platform

Office hours

See the website of Tiziana Lazzarotto


Zero hunger Good health and well-being Clean water and sanitation

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.