37216 - Anatomy (Part 3) (A-K)

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 8415)

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student is able to describe human macroscopic anatomy and topography of the central and peripheral nervous system and apparatus integumentary, endocrine, digestive and urogenital. Moreover the student is ableto make recognition and diagnosisof organs of the microscopicpeparations of the various parts of the digestive, urogenital, integumentary, and key structures of both NSC and PNS.

Course contents


Oral cavity and correaltaed formations . Topography, systematic anatomy, blood supply, innervation of the different sections of the digestive tract. Behavior of the peritoneum in relation to the development of organs.


Kidney: Renal loggia, internal and external configuration, vascularization, innervation, functional anatomy of the nephron. Course, vessels and nerves of the urinary tract. Organogenesis of the urinary tract.

Male gonads. Course of the spermatic tract and glands. External genital organs. Organogenesis the male genital system.

Female gonads. Genital tract: uterine tubes, uterus, vagina. External genital organs. Mammary gland. Organogenesis the female genital system.

Topography, macroscopic anatomy, microscopic and functional thyroid gland, parathyroid, adrenal, endocrine pancreas.

Organization and development of the central nervous system.

Spinal cord: external and internal configuration. Spinal nerve roots. Organization of the gray substance and of the white substance.
Brain Stem: bulb, pons, midbrain. External configuration and reports. Fourth ventricle, brainstem, quadrigeminal plate, mesencephalic aqueduct.
Cerebellum: external and internal configuration, structure and architecture cerebellar cortex.
Diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus. III ventricle.
Telencephalon: general conformation. Fissures, lobes, gyri, cortex, brain areas. Lateral ventricles. Subcortical nuclei and organization of the white substance. Main commissural systems of the telencephalon. Limbic system.
Encephalic and spinal meninges: dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater, canvas and choroid plexus, the cerebrospinal fluid.
Vascularization of the neuraxis: vascularization of the spinal cord and brain. Internal carotid artery. Vertebrobasilar system. Circle of Willis. Cerebral arteries. Venous sinuses of dura mater. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic nervous system and related complexes. Brainstem and sacral parasympathetic system.

Spinal nerves and cranial nerves.



Netter F., Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Edra formerly Elsevier

Anatomia del Gray , Edra formerly Elsevier

Felten et al. Atlante di Neuroscienze di Netter, Edra formerly Elsevier

Anatomia Umana, Anatasi et al., EdiErmes

Teaching methods

Lectures with extensive use of images, such as to facilitate the acquisition of fundamental anatomical basis through the stimulation of visual memory. The course is divided into a series of lectures which are accompanied by practical exercises.The teachers will conduct workshops dissection of corpses.

Assessment methods

 For the access to the oral exam you need to pass a test in multiple choice questions.

The final verification consists of an oral exam in which the student must demonstrate acquired knowledge of systematic and topographical anatomy of the various organs and neuroanatomy. It 'also provided the recognition of a microscopic slide through a microscope.

The grade will be graduated from 18/30 to 30/30. The minimum grade can be achieved by a non-thorough knowledge of anatomy, between 18 and 25 for a fair knowledge, between 26 and 29 for a good knowledge. 30 represents excellent knowledge and “cum laude” is added in case of more than excellent knowledge.

Teaching tools

Lectures using computer presentations, laboratory dissection, models and computer programs

Office hours

See the website of Lucio Ildebrando Cocco


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This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.