37215 - Laboratory of Anatomy (Part 2) (C2A)

Course Unit Page


This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.

Quality education

Academic Year 2021/2022

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student is able to describe human macroscopic anatomy and topography of the central and peripheral nervous system and apparatus integumentary, endocrine, digestive and urogenital. Moreover the student is able to make recognition and diagnosis of organs of the microscopic peparations of the various parts of the digestive, urogenital, integumentary, and key structures of both NSC and PNS.

Course contents


Oral cavity and correaltaed formations . Topography, systematic anatomy, blood supply, innervation of the different sections of the digestive tract. Behavior of the peritoneum in relation to the development of organs.


Kidney: Renal loggia, internal and external configuration, vascularization, innervation, functional anatomy of the nephron. Course, vessels and nerves of the urinary tract. Organogenesis of the urinary tract.

Male gonads. Course of the spermatic tract and glands. External genital organs. Organogenesis the male genital system.

Female gonads. Genital tract: uterine tubes, uterus, vagina. External genital organs. Mammary gland. Organogenesis the female genital system.

Topography, macroscopic anatomy, microscopic and functional thyroid gland, parathyroid, adrenal, endocrine pancreas.

Organization and development of the central nervous system.

Spinal cord: external and internal configuration. Spinal nerve roots. Organization of the gray substance and of the white substance.
Brain Stem: bulb, pons, midbrain. External configuration and reports. Fourth ventricle, brainstem, quadrigeminal plate, mesencephalic aqueduct.
Cerebellum: external and internal configuration, structure and architecture cerebellar cortex.
Diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus. III ventricle.
Telencephalon: general conformation. Fissures, lobes, gyri, cortex, brain areas. Lateral ventricles. Subcortical nuclei and organization of the white substance. Main commissural systems of the telencephalon. Limbic system.
Encephalic and spinal meninges: dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater, canvas and choroid plexus, the cerebrospinal fluid.
Vascularization of the neuraxis: vascularization of the spinal cord and brain. Internal carotid artery. Vertebrobasilar system. Circle of Willis. Cerebral arteries. Venous sinuses of dura mater. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic nervous system and related complexes. Brainstem and sacral parasympathetic system.

Spinal nerves, cranial nerves and autonomous nervous system.


Netter F., Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Edra

Netter F. Atlante interattivo di Anatomia Umana, Edra

Rohen-Yokochi, Atlante fotografico di Anatomia descrittiva e topografica, Piccin

Atlante di Anatomia, Prometheus , EdiSes

Young B. et al., Wheater Istologia ed Anatomia microscopica, Edra

Teaching methods

Macroscopic Anatomy. The teachers will be always present during laboratories, guiding students in learning anatomy, helping them using proper instruments and anatomical models.

In Dissecting Room the students will examine anatomical preparations on cadavers, under the guide of teachers and tutors. There are 4 workshops: 1. head and neck and abdominal wall, 2. abdominal cavity; 3. retroperitoneum and male and female pelvis; 4. brain and spinal cord.

Microscopic Anatomy. The teacher, after the explanation of the microscopic characteristics of organs, will guide the students in the observation at the microscope.


“As concerns the teaching methods of this course unit, all students must attend Module 1, 2 [https://www.unibo.it/en/services-and-opportunities/health-and-assistance/health-and-safety/online-course-on-health-and-safety-in-study-and-internship-areas] online, while Module 3 on health and safety is to be attended in class. Information about Module 3 attendance schedule is available on the website of your degree programme”

Assessment methods

For the access to the oral exam you need to pass a test in multiple choice questions.

The assessment consists of an oral exam in which the student must demonstrate acquired knowledge of systematic and topographical anatomy of the various organs and neuroanatomy. It 'also provided the recognition of a microscopic slide through a microscope.

Gradation of the final grade in Anatomy

Sufficient knowledge of the topics covered in the course but reduced ability to express that sometimes emerges only with the help of the teacher: grade from 18 to 24;

Satisfactory knowledge of the topics covered in the course, good expression skills and good command of specific terminology: grade from 25 to 28;

Exhaustive knowledge of the topics covered in the course, excellent expression skills, full mastery of specific terminology and argumentation skills: grade from 29 to 30L.

The final grade takes into account the outcome of the test.

Teaching tools

Macroscopic Anatomy. The students will be able to study on human bones, plastic models of articulations and limbs. The students will also dissect animal organs, under the guide of the teachers.

Office hours

See the website of Anna Maria Billi