### AA 2019/2020 - TURBOMACHINES AND OFF-SHORE GENERATION - TURBOMACHINES AND POWER GENERATION FOR OFF-SHORE APPLICATION - OFFSHORE SUSTAINABILE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY GENERATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (Module 2) - Course contents

**ENERGY SOURCES**: Classification of energy sources (primary and secondary, renewable and non-renewable, transportable, programmable, etc.); Classification of energy conversion system from primary energy to useful energy (electrical energy, low and high thermal energy, cooling energy).

**SIMPLE CYCLE GASTURBINES**: gasturbine lay-out, main physical states calculation, compressor ratio, compressor and turbine polytropic efficiency, turbine inlet temperature, calculation of compressor specific work, introduced heat, turbine specific work; net work output, thermodynamic efficiency, combustion chamber energy balance and air-to-fuel ratio calculation in stoichiometric conditions, net electric produced power output and total gasturbine efficiency; influence of compressor ratio, turbine inlet temperature and polytropic efficiency on net work output and thermodynamic efficiency; simplified schemes of axial compressor, axial turbine and combustion chamber.

**GASTURBINES WITH HEAT RECOVERY**: gasturbine lay-out, main physical states calculation, heat exchanger diagram, thermodynamic efficiency and its comparison with simple cycle gasturbine; influence of pressure ratio on compressor and turbine discharge temperature, calculation of maximum pressure ratio; real application.

**MICROGASTURBINES**: layout in combined heat and power application (CHP), consideration about compressor and turbine type, turbine inlet temperature, turbine blades cooling, electrical power output and efficiency, fuel flexibility, part load operation.

**SINGLE PRESSURE LEVEL COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT**: topper and bottomer cycle; layout, Ts diagram, HRSG TQ diagram, (approach point, pinch point and sub-cooling temperature difference), HRSG exchanged thermal power balance (superheater, evaporator and economizer); combined cycle total efficiency (HRSG efficiency, Heat Recovery efficiency); thermal balance of condenser section (TQ diagram, water to condensed steam ratio).

**COMPRESSORS**: classification of compressor types; operating field as function of maximum exit pressure and maximum inlet flow.

**AXIAL COMPRESSOR STAGE**: simplified scheme, velocity triangle at inlet and outlet of rotor and stator, static and total enthalpy, Ts diagram of axial compressor stage, compressor geometry (constant mean radius, constant tip radius, etc.), velocity triangles in case of constant mean radius geometry and constant axial velocity, stage work, performance characteristic PSI=f(FI), isentropic efficiency, pressure coefficient (PSIP), consideration about surge and chocking phenomenon, dimension analysis for an axial compressor, corrected flow (CF), corrected speed (CS), BETA=f(CF;CS) and efficiency. characteristic

**CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR**: simplified scheme, velocity triangle at inlet and outlet, work, theoretical characteristic on the basis of the blades shape, actual characteristic, operating point on the basis of circuit characteristic and rotational speed.

**OFF DESIGN GAS TURBINE OPERATION**: single shaft gas turbine: compressor and turbine staking map, equilibrium running line in case of mechanical connection between gas turbine and a gas compressor. Two shafts gas turbine: scheme, Ts diagram, performance gas generator and free turbine equilibrium running line, produced power output as function of turbine and compressor rotational speed. Gas compressor station example and consideration.