# 81783 - FENOMENI TERMICI

## Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student acquires a fundamental knowledge of classic thermodynamic and its microscopic interpretation. Basic hints of kinetic theory of gases and statistical thermodynamic will be provided. The student will be able to apply these general concepts to solve problems of thermic phenomena at Equilibrium.

## Course contents

Thermodynamic systems. State of a thermodynamic system. Thermal equilibrium. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Empirical temperature. Construction of thermometers: Celsius and Kelvin scales. Perfect gas thermometer. States of matter. Ideal and real gas laws. Thermodynamic transformations. Quasi-static transformations. Simple thermodynamic systems. Pressure-volume diagram for pure substances. Water phase diagram.

Thermodynamic work. Thermodynamic work for isobaric, isochoric and isothermal transformations. Adiabatic work. Internal energy. Heat concept. First law of thermodynamics. Thermal capacity. Thermal capacity for an hydrostatic system. Two system thermal equilibrium. Thermal reservoir. Latent heat. Calorimeters. Heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. Stefan-Boltzmann's law. Black body. Application to the Earth-Sun system. Joule's experiment. Internal energy in perfect and real gases. Mayer's relation. Quasi-static adiabatic transformations. Work in adiabatic transformations.

Elements of kinetic theory. Model Building. Relationship between temperature and molecular kinetic energy. Maxwell-Boltzmann's distribution of molecular speeds. Internal energy and molar thermal capacity predicted by the model. Equipartition theorem. Molar thermal capacities for monoatomic and biatomic gases and for solids. Rotational and vibrational energies and degrees of freedom. Dalton Law.

Concept of irreversibility. Thermal and refrigerator machines. Thermal efficiency. Kelvin-Planck's statement. Clausius's statement. Equivalence of the two statements. Carnot cycle. Carnot theorem and its corollary. Carnot cycle efficiency for perfect gases. Absolute thermodynamic temperature. Clausius inequality. Entropy. Entropy in isolated systems. Application of the maximum entropy principle: free expansion, heat conduction, processes with friction. Entropy and thermal efficiency. Entropy and energy degradation. TS plane. Entropy for ideal gases.

Thermodynamic Potentials. Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies. Derivation of the Phase Rule. Clapeyron equation. Thermodynamic potentials in non-pV transformations. Chemical potentials.

Elements of classic statistical thermodynamics. Macrostates and microstates. Isolated systems. Microstate counting. Molecular partition function. Boltzmann Entropy. Uninsulated systems. Connections with classical thermodynamics: temperature. Entropy and disorder. Shannon entropy and information. Cosmological arrow of time.

Basic text:

S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, M. Villa, "Fisica Generale - Meccanica e Termodinamica, seconda edizione", CEA.

In-depth studies:

M. W. Zemansky, Calore e Termodinamica", Zanichelli.

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, "Fisica Volume I, Meccanica-Termodinamica", Edizioni EdiSES.

C. Mencuccini, V. Silvestrini, "Fisica - Meccanica-Termodinamica", CEA.

E. Fermi, "Termodinamica", Boringhieri (lettura a posteriori)

Exercise books:

M. Villa, A. Uguzzoni, M. Sioli, "Esercizi di fisica. Termodinamica, fluidi, onde e relatività. Come risolvere i problemi", Zanichelli, 2018.

A. Bertin et al., "Problemi d'esame di Fisica Generale - Meccanica e Termodinamica", Edizioni Esculapio.

G. A. Salandin e P. Pavan, "Problemi di Fisica 1", CEA.

S. Longhi et al., "Esercizi di Fisica Generale: Meccanica Termodinamica Elettricità e Magnetismo", Edizioni Esculapio.

C. Mencuccini, V. Silvestrini, "Esercizi di Fisica – Meccanica-Termodinamica", CEA.

## Teaching methods

Lectures and exercises.

## Assessment methods

Written and oral examinations.

## Office hours

See the website of Maximiliano Sioli

See the website of Luigi Guiducci