Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

The goal of the course is to make the student able to use all the didactical tools useful to obtain the relevant information to solve a clinical problem. The learning objectives are obtained through the thorough discussion of a clinical case, in order to facilitate the active learning and improve the awareness of the student.

Primary learning objectives include being able to :

- understand the anamnesis and the clinical signs

- integrate all the information of the physical exam in the emission of the clinical diagnosis

- search in a proper way the scientific information concerning the clinical differential diagnoses

- critically evaluate the information found in the literature

- communicate efficiently with the owner

- plan an adrequate diagnostic work-up

- understand and interpretate the results of the diagnostic work up

- plan an adequate therapy

Course contents

The course approaches the major companion animals disorders through the critical evaluation of eight clinical cases concerningneurology and neurosurgery. Specifically, the course emphasizes the importance of the clinical methodology , applied for each clinical case.

The course is organized in different independent tracks, organized according to the "problem oriented approach". Each track is completed by the fnal discussion performed by the students, of the clinical case.


  1. Gandini G. e D’Angelo A. “Esame del sistema nervoso (esame neurologico)” (2014). In: Semeiologia Clinica Veterinaria. Editor: P.Ciaramella– Poletto Editore Milano pp. 245- 290.
  2. Parent J. “Clinical approach and lesion localization in patients with spinal diseases”. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010 Sep;40(5):733-53
  3. Bernardini M. "Neurologia del cane e del gatto". Seconda Edizione (2010) – Poletto Editore Milano.
  4. Braund KG: Clinical Neurology in Small Animals. International Veterinary Information Service, IVIS (www.ivis.org ),Ithaca, New York, 2010
  5. De Lahunta A Glass E: Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology, 4th ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 2015
  6. Dewey CW- Da Costa RC: A practical guide to canine and feline neurology 3rd ed, Blackwell, Iowa State Press, 2015
  7. Lorenz MD, Coates J Kent M: Handbook of Veterinary Neurology, 5th ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 2011
  8. Platt SR, Olby NJ: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology, 4th ed, BSAVA Publications, 2013


The specific organization of the course considers the search of the information for the work up of the case in real time during the work in groups, including the use of internet and web search.

The student is encouraged to obtain autonomously the didactic material, consisting of scientific papers, books, web pages, original material of the Veterinary teaching Portal.

Teaching methods

The teaching method is based on the principles of the active learning and the group work under tutorial supervision. The discussion of the clinical case is the opportunity for the student to reproduce a diagnostic pathway according to teh evidence-based and logic-deductive methodology. The steps include the ability to get autonomously the information necessary to make progresses in the work-up of the case till its resolution.

Due to the specific nature of the Course, no Personal Protective Equipment  (Dispositivi di Protezione Individuale; DPI in Italian language) is required for students. 

Assessment methods

The outcome assessment is made at the end of the course, when each group presents its clinical case on a powerpoint presentation. Students are evaluated by the other students and teachers. Specifically, will be evaluated the logic and sequential procedure, the acquisition of the relevant scientific information, the communication capacity and the efficacy of the exposition.

Teaching tools

The course is held in the IT lab or in a room suited to permit the work in small groups with computer. Students work in groups with at least one computer for each group. They have to work up the clinical case according to the steps that have been planned by the teacher. The course encourages the active learning process through the self-directed learning and the group discussion , including the interaction with the tutor/teacher

Office hours

See the website of Gualtiero Gandini

See the website of Pascaline Benedicte Marie Pey