Course Unit Page

  • Teacher Battista Borghi

  • Credits 2

  • Teaching Mode Traditional lectures

  • Language Italian

Academic Year 2018/2019

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student has: - the bases of general anesthesia and of regional one, the indications, the relative and absolute risks and the safety levels of the different techniques; - basic knowledge on pain in clinical practice. In particular, he is able to know: the socio-clinical and epidemiological aspects of pain in the extra- and intra-hospital environment; the neuro-pathophysiological and classification bases of painful experience as rational for antalgic therapy; pain assessment techniques; the elements of medical and instrumental antalgic therapy. -the fundamentals of basic and advanced support of vital functions (resuscitation and emergency intervention), with regard also to the organizational aspects of extra-hospital rescue in Emilia Romagna; -the principles of critical patient management (intensivology), as well as the observation of brain death and organ donation with attention to the issue of limitation of care and indication to hospitalization in intensive care.

Course contents

The course aims to provide students with insights on pain therapy:
1 Provide clinical tools for patient visit with pain and intensity assessment
2 Evaluation and management of post-operative pain
3 Evaluation and management of acute and chronic pain
4 Multimodal pharmacological and instrumental therapy
5 Identification and therapy of the causes of pain


  • Bonica's Management of Pain 3rd edition. Editor John D. Loeser. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Eds. 2001
  • Aurini L, Borghi B, White PF, Tognù A.,Rossi B, Fini G, Fusco P, Mosca M, Borghi R. Treatment of chronic cervicalbrachial pain with periradicular injection of meloxicam. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26337371] Minerva Anestesiologica 2016 April;82 (4):411-8
  • Borghi B, Aurini L, White PF, Mordenti A, Lolli F, Borghi R, Martignani M, Greggi T. Long-lasting beneficial effects of periradicular injection of meloxicam for treating chronic low back pain and sciatica. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23306395] Minerva Anestesiol. 2013 Apr;79 (4):370-8.
  • Borghi B, D'Addabbo M, White PF, Gallerani P, Toccaceli L, Raffaeli W, Tognù A, Fabbri N, Mercuri M. The use of prolonged peripheral neural blockade after lower extremity amputation: the effect on symptoms associated with phantom limb syndrome. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20881281] Anesth Analg. 2010 Nov; 111(5):1308-15.
  • RM Melotti, BG Samolsky-Dekel, et al. Pain prevalence and predictors among inpatients in a major Italian teaching hospital. A baseline survey towards a pain free hospital. European Journal of Pain Volume 9, Issue 5, October 2005, Pages 485-495

Teaching methods

Interactive frontal lessons with PC projection of the didactic material and clinical case movies.
Particular attention will be given to the application of the neurphysiopathology and clinical pharmacology notions in pain therapy.

Assessment methods

This course is part of an integrated course. The exam at the end of this course aims to evaluate the achievement of the teaching objectives presented during the lessons according to the program of this particular course. The student will be assessed to verify the achievement of the teaching objectives by the person responsible for this particular course through a quiz of 9 questions with multiple choices at the end of the lesson cycle.
Multiple choice quiz: 4 answers 1 correct only.
9 questions per subject CI (anesthesia, m.dolore, emergency surgery, emergency medicine, ch maxillofacial) for a total of 45 questions
0.675 points for each correct answer; 0 points for each wrong / missed answer
100% accurate answers 30 and praise
time available for test 45 '
The exam is passed if you reach: 5 correct answers for each of the CI subjects.
Oral exam on the topics of the program as they were developed during the lessons.

Teaching tools

The content of the lessons will be delivered to the students at the end of the course as pdf foles of the slides.

Office hours

See the website of Battista Borghi