# 00405 - Physics

## Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student - knows the principles of the experimental method used in Physics and some applicative methods also related to the study of life phenomena; - knows the physical principles of modern experimental methods applied to Industrial Pharmacy and of the instrumentation used in laboratory practice; - acquires, by solving simple exercizes, the skill of solving common, frequent applicative problems.

## Course contents

1st Module
Physics and measurement. Notions of statistics and calculus of probabilities. Distributions of probability. Test of statistical hypotheses. Measurement of physical quantities. Experimental errors, random and systematic errors. Significant figures. Systems of measurement units. Conversion of units. Dimensions of physical quantities. Velocity. Acceleration. Composition of movements. Vectors and vector calculus. Motion in the field of gravity. Circular motion. Centripetal and tangential acceleration. Newton's laws. Conservation of momentum and measurement of mass. The forces. Centripetal force. Inertial systems. Universal law of gravitation. Mass and weight. Friction. Angular momentum and torque. Bodies in equilibrium. Centre of mass. Conservation of the angular momentum. Work. Power. Kinetic and potential energy. Conservation of energy. Periodic motion. Harmonic motion. Simple pendulum. Elasticity of materials, Hooke's law, Young's modulus. Density. Pressure. Fluidostatics. Dynamics of ideal and real fluids. Friction in fluids. Sedimentation and centrifugation. Diffusion. Surface tension. Temperature. The ideal-gas law. Kinetic theory. Heat. Specific heats. Latent heats. Heat transport. I and II principle of thermodynamics.
2nd Module
Electric charge. Coulomb's law. The electric field. Gauss' theorem. Electrostatic potential. Capacity, capacitors. Energy of the electric field. Electric current. Electrical resistance, resistivity. Ohm's laws. Theory of electrical circuits. Magnetic field. Lorentz's force. Magnetic field produced by rectilinear current. Ampère's law. Coils. Magnetic moment. Solenoid. E.m. induction: Faraday's and Lenz's laws. Energy of the magnetic field. Periodic motion. Harmonic motion. Simple pendulum. Wave motion. Superimposition of waves. Standing waves. Huygens' principle. Sound waves. Electromagnetic waves. Interference. Diffraction. Polarization. Geometrical optics. Reflection. Refraction. Total reflection. Optical fibers. Dispersion. Optical instruments. Thin lenses. Mirrors. Magnifying glass. Microscope. Prism. Black body spectrum. Photons. Photoelectric effect. Wave particle duality. Diffraction of electrons. Uncertainty principle. The hydrogen atom. Quantum numbers. Atomic structure. X-rays.

## Readings/Bibliography

- copies of the lectures
- elettronic exercize book available at the Web page: http://www.bo.infn.it/ctf/eser
- D.C. Giancoli, Fisica, Casa Ed. Ambrosiana
- F. Borsa & A. Lascialfari, Principi di Fisica per indirizzo biomedico e farmaceutico, Ed. EdiSES, 2014
- Jewett & Serway, Principi di Fisica, EdiSES
- F.R. Cavallo e F.L. Navarria, Appunti di probabilità e statistica per un corso di Fisica, Ed. CLUEB, 2000
- D.M. Burns e S.G.G. MacDonald, Fisica per gli studenti di biologia e medicina, Ed. Zanichelli
- J.W. Kane, M.M. Sternheim, Fisica biomedica , Edizioni Mediche Scientifiche Internazionali

## Teaching methods

lectures and samples of problems using the electronic exercize book

## Assessment methods

The purpose of the final examination is to assess whether the didactical objectives have been attained:
- knowledge of the fundamental physical laws and those relevant for applications in other subjects;
- solving simple problems up to the quantitative solution (final formula, numerical result with three significant digits, units).
The assessment of learning takes place through a written and an oral exam. The written test, preceding the oral one, comprises 6 problems, 3 relative to the first part of the programme, and 3 to the second part, to be completed in 1 hour 30 minutes. Only physics textbooks and the copies of the course transparencies can be used for consultation during the test (hand- or type-written notes, copies of solved problems and collections of formulae are not permitted). For the first three problems correctly solved, including the correct numerical result, each problem is valued 6 points. Beyond the third, each correctly solved problem is valued 4 points. Therefore the written test is considered to be sufficient, i.e. fulfilled, equivalent to 18/30, with three out of six problems correctly solved. The successful written examination is valid three months, after which, if the exam has not been completed with a successful oral exam, it must be repeated. Alternatively, two written tests 'in itinere' can be taken by the students, one at the end of Fisica 1 and the second at the end of Fisica 2. Each test 'in itinere' comprises 3 problems and lasts 45 minutes. The final score is calculated by adding the results of the two tests as already described. The successful tests 'in itinere' are valid one year. The oral exam comprises questions on the programme of the course and possibly a discussion of the written exam.For the students who have successfully completed the tests 'in itinere', the oral exam is shortened, on average, by one question. The final evaluation takes into account the two exams, and may confirm or not the evaluation of the written exam.

## Teaching tools

PC, videoprojector, whiteboard, overhead projector,
Web page: http://www.bo.infn.it/ctf/eser

## Links to further information

http://ishtar.df.unibo.it/Uni/bo/farmacia/all/navarria/stuff/homepage.htm

## Office hours

See the website of Nico Lanconelli

See the website of Francesco Luigi Navarria