57113 - Applied Biology

Course Unit Page

Academic Year 2017/2018

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student should know: the organization and the main molecular mechanisms of eukariotic cells; the organization of genetic information, its transmission and expression; the reproduction of cells and organisms.

Course contents

BIOLOGY MODULE

STUDY OF LIFE
Introduction to biology; properties of living organisms; cell theory; signs of evolution: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

CELL AND ITS FUNCIONAL COMPARTMENTS

Shape, size and structure of eukaryotic cells; microscopy to study cell and its compartments; plasma membrane: structure and permeability; the cytoplasm; the nucleus: structure and function; ribosomes: structure and function; the system of intracellular membranes: structure and function of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosome; mitochondria: structure and inheritance; the cytoskeleton and its ability to define the cell shape and movement; centrifugation process to study cell organelles.

GENETIC INFORMATION AND ITS EXPRESSION

Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. The structure of DNA and its nuclear organization: chromatin and chromosome; gene expression: DNA transcription, maturation of primary transcripts, the genetic code, translation, post-translational modifications and final destination of proteins.

CELL DIVISION, CELL DEATH AND REPRODUCTION

The cell cycle: check points and phases; mitosis; different pathways and functions between necrosis and apoptosis; meiosis and reproduction of human organisms.

GENETICS MODULE

INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS, GENE AND GENOME

Introduction to Genetics. Concept of gene and genetic information. The human genome. DNA and RNA extraction, gel-electrophoresis.

HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION OF CHARACTERS

Mendel's laws. Mode of transmission of monogenic characters: Autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance, X-linked recessive inheritance.

MUTATIONS AND VARIABILITY
Definition, causes and types of mutations. Gene mutations: types and effects on the gene product. PCR and automatic sequencing. Chromosomal mutations. Genomic mutations (Down Syndrome). Description of the human karyotype: number and types of chromosomes. Karyotype analysis. Chromosome banding.

Readings/Bibliography

The book should be of University level and it should take only after the lessons are going to begin.

Roberti R. et al. Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie - McGraw Hill Seconda Edizione, 2013

or in alternative:

Solomon et al. ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA - EdiSes, VII edizione (2017)

Campbell et al. BIOLOGIA E GENETICA - Ed. Pearson, X edizione (2015)

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons, video and discussion of some topics.

Activities in lab.

Assessment methods

The student must face an oral examination about Biology, Genetics and Biochemistry in the same day.

The topics of the exam will be the master arguments treated during the lessons and specified in class at the end of the course.

The final score will be the average of the results obtained in the individual subjects of the course.

Teaching tools

Use of computer to show scientific videos and to present the lecture. Students will be provided with ppt slides (https://campus.cib.unibo.it/cgi/lista).

Office hours

See the website of Federica Facchin

See the website of Lorenza Vitale