84282 - Histology Laboratory (G2)

Academic Year 2022/2023

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 9210)

Learning outcomes

Identify distinct cytotypes and recognize normal tissue morphology by means of optical microscopy.

Course contents

Introduction on the histotechnology by detailing tissue preparation procedures, techniques for essential histological identifications by light microscope, commons staining and relevant protocols for cell shape and size identification: 1h.

Covering Epithelia

Distinguish between, simple, stratified and pseudostratified epithelia

Cell shape characteristic of squamous, cuboidal, columnar and transitional epithelia

Identification of surface specializations of epithelia

Endocrine and exocrine epithelia

Organization and function of exocrine tissues.

The modality of secretion (apocrine, exocrine, merocrine and holocrine secretion)

Organization and function of endocrine tissue

Connective Tissues

Identification of the structural organization both of fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cells residing within connective tissue

Loose and dense connective tissue using the light microscope

White and brown adipose tissue

Cartilage classification (hyaline, fibrous and elastic)

Bone tissue, Intramembranous and Endochondral ossification

Observe and describe the processes of bone remodeling and bone growth.

Describe the calcification processes of cartilage and bone.


Identify the component cells of a blood smear

Identify the hematopoietic precursor cells of a typical bone marrow smear

Distinguish between the different classes of white blood cells

Muscle Tissue and Nervous System

Identify the histological landmarks of skeletal muscle

Contrast the structure and function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue.

Identify morphological differences in smooth muscle across tissues.

Explain the structure and function of the intercalated disc.

Histological and structural features of neurons

Microscopic structure of a nerve fiber, including the structure of the myelin sheath and connective tissue layers.

Identify the four types of glial cells, their structures, and their functions.

Hands on training on two different technics of tissue staining. 2h

hematoxylin and eosin of unknown specimens of murine derivation and immunofluorescence staining of cytoskeleton components, namely actin filaments (also known as F-actin).

Rehearsal and Self-evaluation


to be defined with the students

Teaching methods

Projection of several prototypes of histological specimens followed by student-driven autonomous recognition and discussion. No more than 25 students for a class are allowed.

Alert- Attendance Requirements - Alert-

Attendance to this learning activity is mandatory; the minimum attendance requirement to be admitted to the final exam is 66% of lessons. For Integrated Courses (IC), the 66% attendance requirement refers to the total amount of I.C. lessons. Students who fail to meet the minimum attendance requirement will not be admitted to the final exam of the course and will have to attend relevant classes again during the next academic year. Professors may authorize excused absences upon receipt of proper justifying documentation, in case of illness or serious reasons. Excused absences do not count against a student’s attendance record to determine their minimum attendance requirement.

Assessment methods

The students will be evaluated by a written test on the identification by light microscope of randomly selected histological specimens along with tissues stained by the students during the laboratory activities.

Interpretation of the score:

  • <18 failure, not scored. The student fails to satisfactorily address all of the questions.
  • 18 Poor. The student inadequately addresses most of the questions with serious inherent weaknesses.
  • 21 Fair. The student broadly addresses most of the questions, but there are significant weaknesses.
  • 24 Good. The student addresses the questions well, but a number of shortcomings are present.
  • 27 Very good. The student addresses the criterion very well, but a small number of shortcomings are present.
  •  30 Excellent. The student successfully addresses all relevant aspects of the questions. Any shortcomings are minor.
  •  30 cum laude. The student successfully addresses all relevant aspects of the questions with no shortcomings.

The final score will be a "weighted average mark":


Teaching tools

Histological specimens, on slides.

Mono and binocular optical microscopes for autonomous evaluation of tissues

5-head optical microscope for histologic tutoring of small groups of students

optical microscope connected to a computer projector for class discussion of tissue’s features.

hands-on activity on tissue staining preparations

virtual histological preparations are available to be displayed with computer tools and microscope simulation programs.

Office hours

See the website of Mattia Lauriola