69887 - Endocrinology

Academic Year 2021/2022

  • Teaching Mode: Traditional lectures
  • Campus: Bologna
  • Corso: Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 9210)

Learning outcomes

Describe the clinical manifestations, etiology, epidemiology, risk factor, natural history, diagnosis, staging prognostic indicators and management of the major diseases of the endocrine system, with emphasis on those most commonly encountered in the clinical practice. Identify the major diagnostic and therapeutic options for each encountered clinical scenario, and discuss their benefits and limitations. Present and critically analyze clinical cases, discuss the differential diagnosis, and formulate appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each case (Problem-Based Learning).

Course contents

Lecture 1 (2 h). Introduction to the course, basic principles of endocrinology. The endocrine system, mechanisms of hormonal secretion, classification of hormones, circadian rhythms.

Lecture 2 (2 h). Pituitary gland. Pituitary tumors, hypopituitarism.

Lecture 3 (2 h). Thyroid. Hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, goiter, thyroiditis, carcinoma.

Lecture 4 (2 h). Calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Parathyroid diseases, osteoporosis.

Lecture 5 (2 h). Clinical case session 1.

Lecture 6 (2 h). Adrenal gland. Endocrine hypertension, hypercortisolism, adrenal incidentaloma

Lecture 7 (2 h). Adrenal gland/Gonads. Adrenocortical carcinoma, Adrenal insufficiency, Hypogonadism (male and female).

Lecture 8 (2 h). Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) + Polyglandular Autoimmune (PGA) Syndrome + clinical case session 2.

Lecture 9 (2 h). Obesity and Diabetes. Classification, pathophysiology and complications.

Lecture 10 (2 h). Diabetes: Treatment and hypoglycemia.

Lecture 11 (2 h). Gonads. Alterations of the menstrual cycle, infertility, female hyperandrogenism.

Lecture 12 (2 h). Clinical case session 3.



  • Williams Textbook of Endocrinology
  • Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine (chapter on Endocrinology)

Online resources:

  • Uptodate.com

Teaching methods

Interactive lectures based on knowledge of the pathophysiology of endocrine disorders. The lectures will also be focused on the clinical approach to the main endocrinopathies. Clinical case discussion and interactive clinical cases will be performed, by using dedicated online tools. Teaching materials and slides are made available to the students after the lesson.

Attendance and active participation in classroom activities are essential to promote critical thinking, knowledge of topics, problem solving skills and the overall learning process. During lessons, the teachers guides the students in the critical reading of the teaching materials and provides opportunities for online formative assessment.

Assessment methods

The final exam will be an oral summative assessment consisting of questions pertinent to the Learning Outcomes and Course Contents of all units comprising the Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases integrated course.

Professors of all course units participate in an overall collegial assessment of the student's final profit. The credits (6 CFU) of the integrated Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases course are awarded after passing the final summative assessment with a minimum grade of 18/30. Honors (cum laude) may be awarded to students who have achieved a maximal grade of 30/30 in the final summative assessment and have demonstrated exceptional learning outcomes.

The assessment regarding "Endocrinology" will be based on the fundamental knowledge of the endocrine pathophysiology, and problem solving and clinical reasoning on clinical cases.

Teaching tools

The teaching material discussed during the lectures will be made available through the designated University of Bologna websites. Access is reserved to University of Bologna students registered to the Medicine & Surgery degree program.

Office hours

See the website of Guido Di Dalmazi


Good health and well-being

This teaching activity contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda.